- Bhagat Singh Thind
Bhagat Singh Thind,
PhD, ( October 3, 1892– September 15, 1967) was an Indian American Sikhwriter and lecturer on "spiritual science" who was involved in an important legal battle over the rights of Indians to obtain U.S. citizenship. Thind had fought for the U.S. in World War I. After the war he sought the right to become a naturalised citizen, following a legal ruling that "Caucasians" had access to such rights. At this time Indians were categorised as Caucasian by anthropologists. In 1923, a crucial Supreme Court case " United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind" was decided in favor of the United States, retroactively denying all Indian Americans citizenship for not being Caucasian in "the common man's understanding of the term."
What is less well-known is that Bhagat Singh Thind remained in the U.S., completed his PhD., and delivered lectures in
metaphysicsall across the nation. Basing his lessons on Sikh religious philosophy, he enriched his teaching with references to the scriptures of several religions and the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Henry David Thoreau. He campaigned actively for the independence of Indiafrom the British Empireand helped Indian students in any way he could. Ironically, Dr. Thind applied for and received U.S. citizenship through the state of New York within a few years of being turned down by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1931, he married Vivian Davies and they had a son, David, to whom several of his 15 books are dedicated.
Background In the annals of Asians’ struggle for US citizenship, Bhagat Singh Thind’s fight for citizenship occupies a prominent historical place. Thind’s citizenship was rescinded four days after it was granted. Eleven months later, he received his citizenship for the second time. However, the Immigration and Naturalization Service appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals which sent Thind’s case to the next higher court for ruling. Thind valiantly fought his case in the Supreme Court but the judge revoked his citizenship simply due to the color of his skin. The verdict in Bhagat Singh’s case, [http://supreme.justia.com/us/261/204/case.html United States v. Thind] ensured that the rights and privileges of naturalization were reserved for “Whites” only.
Indians in the United States and Canada were commonly called “Hindoos” (“Hindus”) irrespective of their faith. Thind’s nationality was also referred to as "Hindoo” or “Hindu" in all legal documents and the media although he was a
Sikhby faith and preserved his religious beliefs and practices by keeping his beard, long hair on his head and wearing turban.
Bhagat Singh came to the US in 1913 to pursue higher education in an American university. However, on July 22, 1918, he was recruited by the US Army to fight in World War I. A few months later, on November 8, 1918, Bhagat Singh, a turban wearing “Hindu”, was promoted to the rank of an Acting Sergeant. He had not even served for a month in his new position when the war was declared ended. He received an “honorable discharge” on 16th of December, 1918, with his character designated as "excellent". [Rashmi Sharma Singh: Petition for citizenship filed on September 27, 1935, State of New York] .
The U.S. citizenship conferred many rights and privileges but only “free white men” were eligible to apply [http://multiracial.com/site/content/view/1044/29/ 1] . In the United States, many anthropologists used Caucasian as a general term for "white.” Indian nationals from the north of the Indian Sub-Continent were also considered Caucasian. Thus, several Indians were granted US citizenship in different states. Thind also applied for citizenship from the state of Washington in July 1918.
Becomes US Citizen Second time
He received his citizenship certificate on December 9, 1918 wearing military uniform as he was still serving in the US army. However, the Immigration and Naturalization Service did not agree with the district court granting the citizenship. Thind’s citizenship was revoked in four days, on December 13, 1918, on the grounds that he was not a “free white man.” Thind was trusted by the US to be a soldier in the army and had all the rights and privileges like any “white man.” He was worthy of trust to defend the US but his color stood in his way for the US to trust him for citizenship.
Thind was disheartened but was not ready to give up. He applied for citizenship again from the neighboring state, Oregon on May 6, 1919. The same Immigration and Naturalization Service official who got Thind’s citizenship revoked first time, tried to convince the judge to refuse citizenship to a “Hindoo” from
India. He even brought up the issue of Thind’s involvement in the Gadar Movement, members of which campaigned actively for the independence of Indiafrom the British Empire. Judge Wolverton, believing Thind, observed, “He (Thind) stoutly denies that he was in any way connected with the alleged propaganda of the Gadar Press to violate the neutrality laws of this country, or that he was in sympathy with such a course. He frankly admits, nevertheless, that he is an advocate of the principle of India for the Indians, and would like to see India rid of British rule, but not that he favors an armed revolution for the accomplishment of this purpose.” The judge took all arguments and Thind’s military record into consideration and declined to agree with the INS. Thus, Thind received US citizenship for the second time on November 18, 1920.
The Immigration and Naturalization Service had included Thind’s involvement in the Gadar Movement as one of the reasons for the denial of citizenship to him. Gadar which literally means revolt or mutiny, was the name of the magazine of Hindustan Association of the Pacific Coast. The magazine became so popular among Indians, that the association itself became known as the
The Hindustan Association of the Pacific Coast was formed in 1913 with the objective of freeing India from the British rule. The majority of the supporters and members were from the Punjabi community who had come to the US for better economic opportunities. They were unhappy with racial prejudice and discrimination against them. Indian students, who were welcomed in the universities, also faced discrimination in finding jobs commensurate with their qualifications, on graduation. They attributed prejudice, inequity and unfairness to their being nationals of a subjugated country. Har Dyal, a faculty member at Stanford University, who had relinquished his scholarship and studies at Oxford University, England, provided leadership for the newly formed association and channelized the pro-Indian, anti-British sentiment of the students for independence of India.
Soon after the formation of the Gadar party, World War I broke out in August, 1914. The Germans, who fought against England in the war, offered the Indian Nationalists (Gadarites) financial aid for arms and ammunition to enable Indian volunteer fighters to expel the British from India while the British Indian troops would be busy fighting war at the front. The Gadarite volunteers, however, did not succeed in their mission and were taken captives upon reaching India. Several Gadarites were imprisoned, many for life, and some were hanged. In the United States too, many Gadarites and Germans who supported Gadar activities, were prosecuted in the San Francisco Hindu German Conspiracy Trial (1917-18) and some were convicted for varying terms of imprisonment for violating the American Neutrality Laws.
Case sent to Higher Court
Thind like many other Indian students had joined the Gadar movement and actively advocated independence of India from the British Empire. Judge Wolverton granted him citizenship after he was convinced that Thind was not involved in any “subversive” activities. The Immigration and Naturalization Service appealed against the judge’s decision to the next higher court – the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals which sent the case to the US Supreme Court for ruling on the following two questions:
* "1. Is a high caste Hindu of full Indian blood, born at Amrit Sar, Punjab, India, a white person within the meaning of section 2169, Revised Statutes?"
* "2. Does the act of February 5, 1917 (39 Stat. L. 875, section 3) disqualify from naturalization as citizens those Hindus, now barred by that act, who had lawfully entered the United States prior to the passage of said act?"
Section 2169, Revised Statutes, provides that the provisions of the Naturalization Act “shall apply to aliens, being free white persons, and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent.”
In preparing briefs for the Ninth Circuit Court, Thind’s attorney argued that the Immigration Act of 1917 barred new immigrants from India but did not deny citizenship to Indians who were legally admitted like Thind, prior to the passage of the new law. The purpose of the Immigration Act was “prospective and not retroactive.”
Attorney faces Racist Laws
Thind’s attorney gave references of previous court cases of some Indians who were granted citizenship by the lower federal courts which considered Indians as Caucasians and hence eligible for citizenship. (U.S. v. Dolla 1910, U.S. v. Balsara 1910, Akhay Kumar Mozumdar 1913, Mohan Singh, 1919). In 1922, in the case of a Japanese immigrant, US vs. Ozawa, the highest court, the U.S. Supreme Court officially equated “white person” with “a person of the Caucasian race”. Judge Wolverton, in granting citizenship to Thind, said, “The word “white” ethnologically speaking was intended to be applied in its popular sense to denote at least the members of the white or Caucasian race of people.”
Thind was convinced that based on Ozawa's straightforward ruling of racial specification and many similar previous court cases, he would win the fight and his winning would open the doors for all Indians in the United States to obtain US citizenship. Little did he know that the color of his skin would become the grounds for denial of the right of citizenship by the highest court in the US.
White and Caucasian deemed different
Justice George Sutherland of the United States Supreme Court delivered the [http://supreme.justia.com/us/261/204/case.html unanimous opinion of the court on February 19, 1923] , in which he argued that since the "common man's" definition of “white” did not correspond to "Caucasian", which Indians were, they could not be naturalized. Thus the Judge, giving his verdict, said, “a negative answer must be given to the first question, which disposes of the case and renders an answer to the second question unnecessary, and it will be so certified.”
Shockingly, Justice Sutherland, the same judge who had equated Whites as Caucasians in [http://multiracial.com/site/content/view/1042/29/ US vs.Ozawa] , pronounced that Thind though Caucasian, was not “White” and thus was ineligible for US citizenship. The judge apparently decided the case under the prevailing pressure by the forces of prejudice, racial hatred and bigotry, not on the basis of precedent that he had established in a previous case.
The Supreme Court verdict shook the faith and trust of many Indians in the American system of justice. The economic impact for land and property owning Indians was devastating as they again came under the jurisdiction of the California Alien Land Law of 1913 which restricted ownership of land by persons ineligible for citizenship. Some Indians had to liquidate their land holdings at dramatically lower prices.
Thind's citizenship revoked again
Thind's citizenship was revoked and the INS issued a certificate in 1926 canceling his citizenship for a second time. The Immigration and Naturalization Bureau also initiated proceedings to rescind American citizenship of Indians and from 1923 to 1926, citizenship of fifty Indians was revoked. The Barred Zone Act of 1917 had already prevented fresh immigration of Indians. The continued shadow of insecurity and instability compelled some to go back to India to anchor their lives with their families and familiar environment. The Supreme Court decision further lead to the decline in the number of Indians to 3130 by 1930. [From India to America; Garry Hess, p 31]
Third time lucky
There probably was little sympathy for treating “Hindu Thind” shabbily but there was a concern for the poor treatment of “US Veteran Thind.” Thus in 1935, the 74th congress passed a law allowing citizenship to US Veterans of World War I, even those from the 'barred zones'. Dr. Thind finally received his U.S. citizenship through the state of New York in 1936, taking the oath for the third time to become an American citizen. This time, no official of the INS dared to object or appeal against his naturalization.
Thind had come to the US for higher education and to “fulfill his destiny as a spiritual teacher.” Long before his arrival in the US or of any other religious teacher or yogi from India, American intellectuals had shown keen interest in Indian religious philosophy. Hindu sacred books translated by the English missionaries had made their way to America and were the “favorite text” of many members of the Transcendentalists’ society which was started by some American thinkers and intellectuals who were dissatisfied with spiritual inadequacy of the Unitarian Church. The society flourished during the period of 1836-1860 in the Boston area and had some prominent and influential members including author and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), poet Walt Whitman (1819 – 1892), and writer Henry David Thoreau (1817-62).
Emerson had read Hindu religious and philosophy books including the Bhagvad Geeta, and his writings reflected the influence of Indian philosophy. In 1836, Emerson expressed "mystical unity of nature" in his essay, "Nature." In 1868, Walt Whitman wrote the poem "Passage to India." Henry David Thoreau had considerable acquaintance with Indian philosophical works. He wrote an essay on "Resistance to Civil Government, or Civil Disobedience" in 1849 advocating non-violent resistance against unethical government laws. Many years later, in 1906, Gandhi Ji (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) adopted similar methodology, satyagraha, or non-violent protest to defy the law to gain Indian rights in South Africa. Gandhi Ji quoted Thoreau many times in his paper, Indian Opinion.
Background of Indians in the US
In 1893, Vivekananda came to Chicago to represent
Hinduismat the World Parliament of Religions. He was fluent in English, spoke very eloquently and made a lasting impact on the delegates. For four years, he lectured at major universities and retreats and generated significant interest in yogaand Vedantic philosophy. He also started a Vedantic centre in New York City to promote and propagate Vedantic philosophy. In 1897, he published his book “Vedanta Philosophy --lectures on Raja Yoga and other subjects.” The first part of his book included lectures to classes in New York and second part contained translation and commentary of “Patanjali.” [Pradhan:India in the United States] Swami Vivekananda’s constant teaching, lecturing and addressing retreats for four years increased the number of Americans who became receptive to learn about India, Hindu religion and philosophy. More publishers brought out books to meet the growing interest of the American people. Scribner, Armstrong and Co. published India and Its Native Princes, a 580 pages illustrated coffee table book. C.H. Forbes-Lindsay of Philadelphia published a beautifully hard bound book “India – Past and Present” in two volumes in October, 1903. The Yogi Publication Society of Chicago published many books such as The Hindu-yogi science of breath (1905), A Series of Lessons in Raja Yoga (1906), Bhagavad Gita (1907), etc.
After Swami Vivekananda had left America, some other religious leaders came to fill the void. In 1920, Paramahansa Yogananda came as India’s delegate to an international congress of religious leaders in Boston. The same year, he established Self-Realization Fellowship and for the next few years, he continued to spread his teachings on yoga and meditation on the East coast. In 1925, he established an international headquarters for Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles. He traveled widely and lectured to capacity audiences in many of the largest auditoriums in the country such as New York's Carnegie Hall. (www.yogananda-srf.org)
A few years prior to Yogananda, Bhagat Singh Thind had started delivering lectures in Indian philosophy and metaphysics.
Thind contribution to change in US attitudes
Thind, during his early life, was influenced by the spiritual teachings of his father whose “living example left an indelible blueprint in him.” During his formative years in India, he read the literary writings of American authors Emerson, Whitman, and Thoreau and they too had deeply impressed him. After graduating from
Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, and encouraged by his father, he left for Manila, Philippines where he stayed for a year. He resumed his journey and reached Seattle, Washington, on July 4, 1913.
Thind had gained some understanding of the American mind by interacting with students and teachers at the university and with common people by working in lumber mills of Oregon and Washington during summer vacations to support himself while at UC Berkeley. Thus, his teaching included the philosophy of many religions and in particular that contained in Sikh scriptures. During his lectures, discourses and classes to Christian audience, he frequently quoted
Vedas, Guru Nanak, Kabir, etc. He also made references to the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Henry David Thoreau to which his American audience could easily relate to. He gave a new “vista of awareness” to his students throughout the United States and was able to initiate “thousands of disciples” into his expanded view of reality – “the Inner Life, and the discovery of the power of the Holy Nãm.” He never converted or persuaded any of his students to become Hindu or Sikh but generously shared India’s mystical, spiritual and philosophical treasures with them.
Thind, who had earned a Ph.D, became a prolific writer and was respected as “spiritual guide.” He published many pamphlets and books and reached “an audience of at least five million.” The list of his books includes Radiant Road to Reality, Science of Union with God , The Pearl of Greatest Price, House of Happiness, Jesus, The Christ: In the Light of Spiritual Science (Vol. I, II, III), The Enlightened Life, Tested Universal Science of Individual Meditation in Sikh Religion, Divine Wisdom in three volumes. see [http://www.Bhagatsinghthind.com Thind's Website for more details]
In "RADIANT ROAD TO REALITY", Dr. Thind reveals an exact science showing the seeker how to connect the individual soul with its Universal Creator. "There are many religions, but only one Morality, one Truth, and one God. The only Heaven is one of conscious life and fellowship with God," explains Dr. Thind. He wrote, JESUS, THE CHRIST: In the Light of Spiritual Science in three volumes for those, “Who have freed themselves of orthodox religious thinking. The books serve as a springboard to greater spiritual heights, wherein we appreciate more than ever the message of the Sat Gurus, the Saviors, the Avatars, the Christs, of whom Jesus Christ was one.”
Dr.Thind dies suddenly
Dr.Thind was working on some books when suddenly he died on September 15, 1967. He was born on October 3, 1892, thousands of miles away in the village of Taragarh, tehsil Jundiala, district
Amritsar, in the state of Punjab, India. He was survived by his wife, Vivian, whom he had married in March, 1940, daughter, Rosalind and son, David, to whom several of his books are dedicated.
Singh never established a temple,
Gurdwaraor a center for his followers but lived for a long time in the hearts of his numerous followers. David Thind, long after his father’s death, has established a website www.Bhagatsinghthind.com to propagate the philosophy for which Dr. Bhagat Singh Thind spent his entire life in the US. He has also posthumously published two of his father’s books, Troubled Mind in a Torturing World and their Conquest, and Winners and Whiners in this Whirling World and is working on some others.
Dr. Bhagat Singh Thind said, “You must never be limited by external authority, whether it be vested in a church, man, or book. It is your right to question, challenge, and investigate.” Dr. Singh lived his life by that statement. He was a man of indomitable spirit and waged a deeply effective struggle for citizenship. He extended the boundaries of his fight by challenging the forces of race and color. Unfortunately, even the highest US court could not rise above the low level of skin color.
Books by Bhagat Singh Thind
* "Radiant Road to Reality"
* "Science of Union with God"
* "The Pearl of Greatest Price"
* "House of Happiness"
* "Jesus, The Christ: In the Light of Spiritual Science" (Vol. I, II, III)
* "The Enlightened Life"
* "Tested Universal Science of Individual Meditation in Sikh Religion"
* "Divine Wisdom" (Vol. I, II, III)
* "Troubled Mind in a Torturing World and their Conquest"
* "Winners and Whiners in this Whirling World"
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