- Indian painting
Indian painting is a form of
The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of
pre-historictimes, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka, and some of them are older than 5500 BC. Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ellora, Maharashtrastate present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals. Thereafter, frescoes of Ajantaand Ellora Cavesappeared. India’s Buddhistliterature is replete with examples of texts which describe that palaces of kings and aristocratic class were embellished with paintings, but they have largely not survived. But, it is believed that some form of art painting was practiced during that time.
Somewhere around 1st century BC the "Sadanga" or Six Limbs of Indian Painting, were evolved, a series of canons laying down the main principles of the art. Vatsyayana, who lived during the third century A.D., enumerates these in his Kamasutra having extracted them from still more ancient works.
These ‘Six Limbs’ have been translated as follows :
1. "Rupabheda" The knowledge of appearances.
2. "Pramanam" Correct perception, measure and structure.
3. "Bhava" Action of feelings on forms.
4. "Lavanya Yojanam" Infusion of grace, artistic representation.
5. "Sadrisyam" Similitude.
6. "Varnikabhanga" Artistic manner of using the brush and colours. (Tagore.)
The subsequent development of painting by the Buddhists indicates that these ' Six Limbs ' were put into practice by Indian artists, and are the .basic principles on which their art was founded.
In western India from the 16th to 18th century miniature painting developed. These small paintings were part of manuscripts written at the time and illustrate the subjects of the manuscripts.These miniatures are found in some " Jain " manuscripts and are of 2 to 4 inches in size.
The pattern of large scale wall painting which had dominated the scene, witnessed the advent of miniature paintings during the 11th & 12th centuries. This new style figured first in the form of illustrations etched on palm-leaf manuscripts. The contents of these manuscripts included literature on the Buddhism & jainism. In eastern india, the prinicple centres of artistic and intellectual activities of the Buddhist religion were Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramshila and Somarpura situated in the Pala kingdom (Bengal & Bihar).
It was in the 14th century A.D. that paper replaced the palm leaf. The jain style of paintings attained a high degree of development by th elate 15th and 16th century. A new trend in manuscript illustration was set by a manuscript of the Nimatnama painted at Mandu, during the reign of Nasir shah (1500 - 1510 AD). This represent a synthesis of the indigenous and the Persion style, thought it was the latter which dominated the Mandu manuscripts. There was another style of painting known as Lodi Khuladar that flourished in the Sultanate's dominion of North India extending from delhi to Jaunpur.
Akbar's reign (1556-1605) ushered a new era in Indian miniature painting. He was the first morarch who established in India an atelier under the supervision of two Persian master artists, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul-ul-Sanad Khan. Earlier, both of them had served under the patronage of Humayun in Kabul and accompanied him to India when he ergained his throne in 1555. Later, a number of artists were engaged to work under their guidance to decorate Akbar's imperial studio at fatehpur Sikri. On of the first productions of that school of miniature painting was the HAMZANAMA series, which according to the court historian, Badayuni, was started in 1567 and completed in 1582. It is interesting that most of artists beloned to the Hindu communities hailing from Gujrat, Gwalior and kashmir, who gave a birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings.
Madhubani painting is a style of uttradi mutt painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar state, India. The origins of Madhubani painting are shrouded in antiquity, and a tradition states that this style of painting originated at the time of the
Ramayana, when King Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriage of his daughter, Sita, with Sri Rama who is considered to be an incarnation of the Hindugod lord Vishnu.
Rajput painting, a style of Indian painting, evolved and flourished, during the 18th century, in the royal courts of
Rajputana, India. Each Rajput kingdom evolved a distinct style, but with certain common features. Rajput paintings depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna’s life, beautiful landscapes, and humans. Miniatures were the preferred medium of Rajput painting, but several manuscripts also contain Rajput paintings, and paintings were even done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts, havelies, particularly, the havelis of Shekhawait.
The colours extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones, gold and silver were used. The preparation of desired colours was a lengthy process, sometimes taking weeks. Brushes used were very fine.
Mughal painting is a particular style of Indian painting, generally confined to illustrations on the book and done in miniatures, and which emerged, developed and took shape during the period of the
Mughal Empire16th -19th centuries).Mughal paintings were a unique blend of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. Because the Mughal kings wanted visual records of their deeds as hunters and conquerors, their artists accompanied them on military expeditions or missions of state, or recorded their prowess as animal slayers, or depicted them in the great dynastic ceremonies of marriages ...
Akbar (1556-1605) was the one who started encouraging of Mughal artista. After he had consolidated his political power, he built a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri where he collected artists from India and Persia . More than a hundred painters were employed, most of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir.. They worked under the two Persian master-artists Abdus Samad and Mir Sayyid Ali, but they were encouraged and inspired by Akbar.
The stories of Amir Hamza, an uncle of the Prophet, were illustrated by Mir Sayyid Ali. The paintings of the Hamza-nama are of large size, 20 x 27" and were painted on cloth. They are in the Persian safavi style. Brilliant red, blue and green colours predominate; the pink, eroded rocks and the vegetation, planes and blossoming plum and peach trees are reminiscent of Persia . However, Indian tones appear in later work, when Indian artists were employed.
After him, Jehangir encouraged artists to paint portraits and durbar scenes. His most talented portrait painters were Abul Hasan and Bishan Das.
Shah Jehan (1627-1658) continued the patronage of painting. Some of the famous artists of the period were Mohammad Faqirullah Khan, Mir Hashim, Muhammad Nadir, Bichitr, Chitarman, Anupchhatar, Manohar and Honhar.
Aurangzeb had no taste for fine arts. Due to lack of patronage artists migrated to Hyderabad in the Deccan and to the Hindu states of Rajasthan in search of new patrons.
Mysore painting is an important form of classical
South Indian painting that originated in the town of Mysorein Karnataka. These paintings are known for their elegance, muted colours, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are HinduGods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India.
The process of making a Mysore painting involves many stages. The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base. The base consists of cartridge paper pasted on a wooden base. A paste made of Zinc oxide and Arabic gum is made called "gesso paste". With the help of a thin brush all the jewellery and parts of throne or the arch which have some relief are painted over to give a slightly raised effect of carving. This is allowed to dry. On this thin gold foil is pasted. The rest of the drawing is then painted using watercolours. Only muted colours are used.
Tanjore painting is an important form of classical
South Indian painting native to the town of Tanjorein Tamil Nadu. The art form dates back to the early 9th century, a period dominated by the Cholarulers, who encouraged artand literature. These paintings are known for their elegance, rich colours, and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are HinduGods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India.
The process of making a Tanjore painting involves many stages. The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base. The base consists of a cloth pasted over a wooden base. Then chalk powder or
zinc oxideis mixed with water-soluble adhesiveand applied on the base. To make the base smoother, a mild abrasiveis sometimes used. After the drawing is made, decoration of the jewellery and the apparels in the image is done with semi-precious stones. Laces or threads are also used to decorate the jewellery. On top of this, the gold foils are pasted. Finally, dyesare used to add colours to the figures in the paintings.
The Bengal School of Art was an influential style of art that flourished in India during the
British Rajin the early 20th century. It was associated with Indian nationalism, but was also promoted and supported by many British arts administrators.
The Bengal school arose as an
avant gardeand nationalist movement reacting against the academic artstyles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Ravi Varmaand in British art schools. Following the widespread influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havelattempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Artby encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures. This caused immense controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move. Havel was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore, a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havel believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West. Tagore's best-known painting, "Bharat Mata" (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations. Tagore later attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art.
The Bengal school's influence in India declined with the spread of
modernistideas in the 1920s.
Modern Indian Painting
During the colonial era, Western influences started to make an impact on Indian art. Some artists developed a style that used Western ideas of composition, perspective and realism to illustrate Indian themes. Others, like
Jamini Roy, consciously drew inspiration from folk art.
By the time of Independence in 1947, several schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas. Galleries were established to showcase these artists. Modern Indian art typically shows the influence of Western styles, but is often inspired by Indian themes and images. Major artists are beginning to gain international recognition, initially among the Indian diaspora, but also among non-Indian audiences.
The Progressive Artist's Group, established shortly after India became independent in 1947, was intended to establish new ways of expressing India in the post-colonial era. The founders were six eminent artists - K. H. Ara, S. K. Bakre, H. A. Gade,
M.F. Husain, S.H. Razaand F. N. Souza, Though the group was dissolved in 1956, it was profoundly influential in changing the idiom of Indian art. Almost all India's major artists in the 1950s were associated with the group. Some of those who are well-known today are Bal Chabda, V. S. Gaitonde, Krishen Khanna, Ram Kumar, Tyeb Mehta, and Akbar Padamsee. Other famous painters like Jahar Dasgupta, Prokash Karmakar, and Bijon Choudhuri enriched the art culture of india. They have become the icon of modern Indian art. Art historians like Prof. Rai Anand Krishnahave also referred to those works of modern artistes that reflect Indian ethos. Some of the new artists like Geeta Vadhera have had acclaim in translating complex, Indian spiritual themes into the canvas - Sufi thought  , Upanishads and the Bhagwad Geeta, for example.
Samikshavad is the first indigenous movement of art in modern India, which started in north India in 1974. It has a different identity from the western movements of art. It is neither affected or inspired by the top western art. Its main source of inspiration are the present social, political, cultural and economical conditions. Its aim is to make the Art free from personalized obligations and to socialize it, to change the art from mystery to something having special aim. Prof.
Ram Chandra Shukla, professor and head of the department, of Painting at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, at that time, was the initiator and the main source of inspiration for this movement. A few of the artists who were inspired by this movement were Ravindra Nath Mishra, Hridya Narayan Mishra, Harpreet Singh,Santosh Kumar Singh, Virendra Prasad Singh, Ram Shabd Singh, Raghuvir Sen Dhir, Ved Prakash Mishra, Gopal Madhukar Chaturvedi, Bala Dutt Pandey etc.
ome notable Indian paintings
* Hemen Majumdar's "Lady with the Lamp"
* Ravindranath Tagore's "Self portrait"
* Ramkinker Baij's "Jakkha 0 Jakkhi"
* Bikash Bhattacharya's "Doll-series"
Geeta Vadhera's Jogia "Dhoop series" [http://geetavadhera.net/jogia_dhoop.html]
Jahar Dasgupta's "Confrontation" [http://www.sutlejart.com/artist-works.php?aid=84]
* MF Hussain's "Horses-series"
* Jamini Roy's "Jesus"
* Jainul Abedin's "Series on Bengal Famine"
* Sunil Das's "Bull Series"
Devajyoti Ray's "In Despair"
* Tyeb Mehta's "Mahisasur"
B. G. Sharma's Krishnaminiatures [http://mandala.org/index.php?cPath=19] [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1886069379]
* Vagaram chudhary"Around The Cultural Elements" [http://www.saffronart.com/search/AdvancedSearchResult.aspx?st=5&artistid=1975]
History of painting
Eastern art history
[ [http://www.vmfa.museum/worlds/worlds_intro.html Online exhibition from the Virginia Museum]
* [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mugh_2/hd_mugh_2.htm Metmusuem.org]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.