Drilling rig (petroleum)

Drilling rig (petroleum)

The equipment associated with a rig is to some extent dependent on the type of rig but typically includes at least some of the following items:

#Mud tank
#Shale shakers
#Suction line (mud pump)
#Mud pump
#Motor or power source
#Vibrating hose
#Draw-works
#Standpipe
#Kelly hose
#Goose-neck
#Traveling block
#Drill line
#Crown block
#Derrick
#Monkey board
#Stand (of drill pipe)
#Pipe rack (floor)
#Swivel (On newer rigs this may be replaced by a Top Drive)
#Kelly drive
#Rotary table
#Drill floor
#Bell nipple
#Blowout preventer (BOP) Annular
#Blowout preventers (BOPs) Pipe ram & Blind ram
#Drill string
#Drill bit
#Casing head
#Flow line

*Bell nipple: (#22) a section of large diameter pipe fitted to the top of the blowout preventers that the flow line attaches to via a side outlet, to allow the drilling fluid to flow back to the mud tanks.
*Blowout preventers: (BOPs) (#23 & #24), are devices installed at the wellhead to prevent fluids and gases from unintentionally escaping from the wellbore. #23 is the Annular (often referred to as the "Hydril", which is one manufacturer) and #24 is the Pipe rams and Blind rams.
*Casing head: (#27) a large metal flange welded or screwed onto the top of the conductor pipe (also known as "drive-pipe") or the casing and is used to bolt the surface equipment to. Equipment such as the blowout preventers (for well drilling) or the christmas tree (for well production).
*Centrifuge: (Not pictured) an industrial version of the device that separates fine silt and sand from the drilling fluid. Typically mounted on top or just off of the mud tanks.
*Crown block: (#13) The stationary end of the "block and tackle".
*Degasser: (Not pictured) a device that separates air and/or gas from the drilling fluid. Typically mounted on top of the mud tanks.
*Derrick: (#14) the support structure for the equipment used to lower and raise the drill string into and out of the wellbore.
*Desander / desilter: (Not pictured) contains a set of Hydrocyclones that separate sand and silt from the drilling fluid. Typically mounted on top of the mud tanks.
*Draw-works: (#7) is the mechanical section that contains the spool, whose main function is to reel in/out the drill line to raise/lower the traveling block.
*Drill Bit: (#26) device attached to the end of the drill string that breaks apart the rock being drilled. It contains jets through which the drilling fluid exits.
*Drill floor: (#21) the area on the rig where the tools are located to make the connections of the drill pipe, bottom hole assembly, tools and bit. It is considered the main area where work is performed.
*Drill line: (#12) Thick, stranded metal cable threaded through the two blocks (traveling & crown) to raise and lower the drill sting.
*Drill Pipe: (#16) joints of hollow tubing used to connect the surface equipment to the bottom hole assembly (BHA) and acts as a conduit for the drilling fluid. In the diagram, these are "stands" of drill pipe which are 2 or 3 joints of drill pipe connected together and "stood" in the derrick vertically, usually to save time while Tripping pipe.
*Drill string: (#25) an assembled collection of drill pipe, heavy weight drill pipe, drill collars and any of a whole assortment of tools, connected together and run into the wellbore to facilitate the drilling of a well. The collection of which is referred to singularly as the drill string.
*Elevators: (Not pictured) a hinged device that is used to latch to the drill pipe or casing to facilitate the lowering or lifting (of pipe or casing) into or out of the wellbore.
*Flow line: (#28) is large diameter pipe that is attached to the bell nipple and extends to the shale shakers to facilitate the flow of drilling fluid back to the mud tanks.
*Goose-neck: (#10) thick metal elbows connected to the swivel and standpipe that supports the weight of and provides a downward angle for the kelly hose to hang from.
*Kelly: (#5) a square, hexagonal or octagonal shaped tubing that is inserted through and is an integral part of the rotary table that moves freely vertically while the rotary table turns it.
*Kelly hose: (#9) is a flexible, high pressure hose that connects the standpipe to the kelly (or more specifically to the gooseneck on the swivel above the kelly) and allows free vertical movement of the kelly, while facilitating the flow of the drilling fluid through the system and down the drill string.
*Monkey board: (#15) the structure used to support the top-end of the stands of drill pipe vertically situated in the derrick.
*Mud motor: (Not pictured) a hydraulically powered device positioned just above the drill bit used to spin the bit independently from the rest of the drill string.
*Mud pump: (#4) reciprocal type of pump used to circulate drilling fluid through the system.
*Mud tank: (#1) often called mud pits, provides a reserve store of drilling fluid until it is required down the wellbore.
*Pipe rack: (#17) a part of the drill floor (#21) where the stands of drill pipe are stood upright. Typically made of a metal frame structure with large wooden beams situated within it. The wood helps to protect the end of the drill pipe from damage.
*Rotary table: (#20) rotates, along with its constituent parts the kelly and kelly bushing, the drill string and the attached tools and bit.
*Shale shaker: (#2) separates drill cuttings from the drilling fluid before it is pumped back down the wellbore.
*Stand: (#16) sections of 2 or 3 joints of drill pipe connected together and "stood" upright in the derrick. When pulling out of the hole, instead of laying down each joint of drill pipe, 2 or 3 joints are left connected together and stood in the derrick to save time.
*Standpipe: (#8) a thick metal tubing, situated vertically along the derrick, that facilitates the flow of drilling fluid and has attached to it and supports one end of the kelly hose.
*Suction line: (#3) intake line for the mud pump to draw drilling fluid from the mud tanks.
*Swivel: (#18) the top-end of the kelly that allows the rotation of the drill string without twisting the block.
*Traveling block: (#11) The moving end of the "block and tackle", together they give a significant mechanical advantage for lifting.
*Vibrating hose: (#6) is a flexible, high pressure hose (similar to the "kelly hose") that connects the mud pump to the "stand pipe". It is called the "vibrating hose" because it tends to vibrate and shake (sometimes violently) due to its close proximity to the mud pumps.


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