- Abba Eban
Date of birth = birth date|1915|2|2|df=y
Place of birth =
Cape Town, South Africa
Year of Aliyah = 1940
Date of death = death date and age|2002|11|17|1915|2|2|df=y
Place of death =
Knesset(s) = 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th
Party = Alignment
Former parties =
Gov't roles = Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Education & Culture
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister without Portfolio
Abba Eban ( _he. אבא אבן, born Aubrey Solomon Meir on
2 February 1915, died 17 November 2002) was an Israeli diplomatand politician.
Cape Town, South Africa, Eban moved to Englandat an early age. He was educated at St Olave's Grammar School, Southwarkbefore studying Classics and Oriental languages at Queens' College, Cambridge. As a child, he recalls being sent to his grandfather's house every weekend to study the Hebrew language and Biblical literature. [Eban, Abba: An Autobiography. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 6] After graduating with high honours, he researched Arabic and Hebrew as a Fellowof Pembroke College from 1938–1939. At the outbreak of World War II, Eban went to work for Chaim Weizmannat the World Zionist Organizationin London from December 1939. A few months later he joined the British Armyas an intelligence officer, where he rose to the rank of major. He served as a liaison officer for the Alliesto the Jewish Yishuvof Palestine. Drawing on his linguistic skills, in 1947 he translated from the original Arabic, "Maze of Justice: Diary of a Country Prosecutor", a 1937 novel by Tawfiq al-Hakim.
Eban moved back to London briefly to work in the Jewish Agency's Information Department, from where he was posted to New York, where the General Assembly of the
United Nationswas considering the "Palestine Question". In 1947, he was appointed as a liaison officer to the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, where he was successful in attaining approval for the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arabsegments—Resolution 181. At this stage, he changed his name to the Hebrew word Abba (however it was seldom used informally), meaning "Father", as he could foresee himself as the father of the nation of Israel. Eban spent a decade at the United Nations, and also served as his country's ambassador to the United Statesat the same time. He was renowned for his oratorical skills. In the words of Henry Kissinger:
"I have never encountered anyone who matched his command of the English language. Sentences poured forth in mellifluous constructions complicated enough to test the listener’s intelligence and simultaneously leave him transfixed by the speaker’s virtuosity."
His polished presentation, grasp of history, and powerful speeches gave him authority in a United Nations that was generally skeptical of Israel or even hostile to it. He was fluent in ten languages. [cite web| title=Abba Eban| url=http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/people/BIOS/eban.html| publisher=Department for Jewish Zionist Education| accessdate=2007-12-30] In 1952, Eban was elected Vice President of the UN General Assembly. [cite web| title=Abba Eban| url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Eban.html| publisher=Jewish Virtual Library| accessdate=2007-12-30]
Eban left the United States in 1959 and returned to Israel, where he was elected to the
Knesset(the Israeli parliament) as a member of Mapai. He served under David Ben-Gurionas Minister of Education and Culture from 1960 to 1963, then as deputy to Prime Minister Levi Eshkoluntil 1966. Through this entire period (1959–1966), he also served as president of the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot.
From 1966 to 1974, Eban served as Israel's foreign minister, defending the country's reputation after the
Six-Day War. Nonetheless, he was a strong supporter of giving away the territories occupied in the war in exchange for peace. He played an important part in the shaping of UN Security Council Resolution 242in 1967 (as well as UN Security Council Resolution 338in 1973). Eban was at times criticized for not voicing his opinions in Israel's internal debate. However, he was generally known to be on the "dovish" side of Israeli politics and was increasingly outspoken after leaving the cabinet. In 1977 and 1981 it was widely understood that Shimon Peresintended to name Eban Foreign Minister, had the Labor Party won those elections. Eban was offered the chance to serve as Minister without Portfolioin the 1984 national unity government, but chose to serve instead as Chair of the Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committeefrom 1984 to 1988.
His comment that "Arabs never miss an opportunity to miss an opportunity" (ie, for peace) made after the Geneva peace talks in December 1973, is often quoted. [cite news| title=Israel's diplomatic giant Eban dies| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2486473.stm| publisher=BBC News| date=
In 1988, after three decades in the Knesset, he lost his seat over internal splits in the Labour Party. He devoted the rest of his life to writing and teaching, including serving as a visiting academic at
Princeton University, Columbia Universityand The George Washington University. He also narrated televisiondocumentaries including "Heritage: Civilization and the Jews" ( PBS, 1984), for which he was host, "Israel, A Nation Is Born" (1992), and "On the Brink of Peace" (PBS, 1997).
In 2001, Eban received the
Israel Prize, his country's highest honor. He died in 2002 and was buried in Kfar Shmaryahu, north of Tel Aviv.
Abba Eban's brother-in-law is the late
Chaim Herzog, the sixth president of Israel. Herzog's son Isaac Herzogis a minister in Israel's Knesset. Eban's cousin, Oliver Sacks, is a neurologist and author and his son, Eli Eban, is a renowned clarinetist who teaches at Indiana University. Eli has two children, Yael and Omri Eban. His nephew, Jonathan Lynnis a filmmaker and script writer known for satirical BBCshows " Yes Minister" and " Yes, Prime Minister". Lynn recounts that the plot of an episode of Yes, Prime Minister, which involved the British Prime Minister bypassing his own Arab-centric bureaucracy by taking the Israeliambassador's advice, was based on an actual incident narrated to him by Eban.
*cite book | title=Voice of Israel | id=OCLC 332941 | year = 1957
*cite book | title=The tide of nationalism | id=OCLC 371099 | year = 1959 (Herbert Samuel lecture)
*cite book | title=My people: the story of the Jews | id=ISBN 0-394-72759-2 | year = 1968
*cite book | title=My country; the story of modern Israel | id=ISBN 0-394-46314-5 | year = 1972
*cite book | title=Abba Eban: an autobiography | id=ISBN 0-394-49302-8 | year = 1977
*cite book | title=The new diplomacy : international affairs in the modern age | id=ISBN 0-394-50283-3 | year = 1983
*cite book | title=Heritage : civilization and the Jews | id=ISBN 0-671-44103-5 | year = 1984
*cite book | title=Personal witness : Israel through my eyes | id=ISBN 0-399-13589-8 | year = 1992
*cite book | title=Diplomacy for a new century | id=ISBN 0-300-07287-2 | year = 1998
*"The Commentator"; "In Memoriam"; Volume 67, Issue 5; November 25, 2002
* [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/people/BIOS/eban.html Biography] at The Department for Jewish Zionist Education
* [http://truman.huji.ac.il/units.asp?cat=53&in=0 Abba Eban Centre for Israeli Diplomacy] (Part of the Harry S. Truman Institute for the Advancement of Peace)
* [http://www.thespeeches.com/ A Collection of Abba Eban's speeches (and others)]
* [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/11/Abba%20Eban Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs] (Biography and Selected Speeches)
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