- Eugenio Curiel
Eugenio Curiel (
December 11, 1912, Trieste- February 24, 1945, Milan) was an Italian physicistand a prominent figure of the Italian resistance movement. He was awarded posthumously the Gold medal for military valour.
Eugenio Curiel was the first of four children of a Jewish family of comfortable circumstances. His father Giulio was an engineer in the San Marco workshops of Trieste, and his mother, Lucia Limentani, was the sister of the Florentine
After graduation from high school in 1929, he studied engineering for two years in Florence. In 1931 he enrolled at the Politecnico di Milano University, but after a few months he returned to Florence University where he took up theoretical physics, and lodged with his uncle Ludovico, who taught moral philosophy at that university. Careful to maintain his independence he taught, in the meantime privately, and obtained in December of 1932 a diploma to teach in primary schools. In 1933, a friend Bruno Rossi, who had obtained a chair in physics at
PadovaUniversity, invited him to finish his studies there, which he managed to do, taking his degree magna cum laude.
Curiel was however subject to
neurasthenia, and, for some time, was attracted to the anthroposophyof Rudolph Steiner, whose system of thought and practical life appeared to offer, as he confided to Rossi in a letter, a stimulus towards self-discipline that might allow him to adjust his physical and psychological outlook to the intellectual and moral rigour he already displayed. His interests in this area drew him away from the scientific career which seemed to be the natural direction for him after his degree. IN November 1933, he accepted a position as reserve teacher of litterature at the Gymnasium school of Montepulciano, but returned to Padova some months later, in february 1934, where Bruno Rossi had obtained for him a position as university assistent in rational mechanics. In 1935 he joined a small clandestine communist cell at the university.
Joining the Communist Party
Curiel's fascination with Steiner's philosophy diminished with time, as he gradually developed an interest in the dominant currents of idealist philosophy, in particular with
Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Benedetto Croceand Giovanni Gentile. At the same time, he was drawn into the study of more practical philosophical issues through a reading of the works of Georges Soreland anarchic syndicalism. he pursued these studies at the Insrtitute of the Philosophy of Law, where he became friends with Ettore Luccini and Enrico Opocher. But, during his sojourn in Padova at this period, a decisive event was his renewal of acquaintence with his childhood friend, Atto Braun, with whom he shared lodgings. Braun was a clandestine member of the Communist Partyand through his influence, Curiel read Marxand Engels's Communist Manifesto, the Antidühring, and Lenin's "What to do?". In 1935 Curiel became a member of the small communist cell at Padova University, which was led by Braun, Guido Goldschmiedand Renato Mieli. he contributed articles on union issues from 1937 onwards for the magazine "Il Bò", the University newspaper, which was edited by both young fascists who had begun to feel disaffected by the orthodoxy of the regime, and by antifascists like Braun.
The Communist party tried to infiltrate its own members into union and student organisations run by the fascists, in order to sklowly reorient them with subtle caution, towards a critical attitude to Fascism. This was one reason behind Curiel's trip to
Parisin March 1937, where the foreign offices of the party was located, and where he formed contacts withn Emilio Sereni, Ambrogio Doniniand Ruggiero Grieco. To this period may be dated an article he wrote, under the pseudonym of Giorgio Intelvi, entitled "Our economic and union work with the masses and the struggle for democracy", which appeared in the review "The Workers' State". ["Lo Stato operaio", XI, 3-4, 1937, now reprinted in E. Curiel, cit.] Curiel maintained that it was necessary to pressure students, by means of university publications, to get them to abandon the still residually corporative ideology of 'left-wing fascism', and have them recognize the 'class struggle. Persuasion of the elected representatives of factory workers was also important, in order to build among among them 'clandestine groups' that would then be able to exercise a political influence on the shop-floor workers. The article was subject to some criticism - Egidio Gennari took exception to its abstract character and economism - but Curiel won Gennari's confidence nonetheless, for his intelligence, culture and willpower. Encouraged, he returned to Padova to continue his work there, while keeping up his contacts in Paris.
In early 1938 Curiel was ordered by the president of the Confederation of Italian Unions, Tullio Cianetti to present himself there. Cianetti had no idea of Curciel's real political sympathies, but invited him to be more prudent, given that his articles were being cited in the antifascist press abroad. He was asked to pay attention to attempts by 'subversives' to infiltrate fascist organisations.
Curciel's last article appeared inn the August 20 edition of «Il Bò». It was entitled, "The union's reprisal", where he wrote that the union must 'examine closely the way collective contracts are applied' and must take into account the will of workers as that is expressed in union assemblies. To support the idea that in a corporative regime the interests of both employers and workers overlap is proof only of shows 'blindness'. In the same review, however, there was another article listing the names of Jewish teachers in Italian universities. Curiel's name naturally figured among them. The period was one that declared a turnaround in the regime's politics, which now embraced a naziphile position, In November of the same year laws for 'the defence of the (Italian) race were decreed, and, i consequence, Curiel, like so many others, was deprived of his rights to teach.
His expulsion from the University, not only made earning one's way more difficult: it also made him automatically a suspect as a possible antifascist, and rendered his illegal political activities more arduous. Curciel travelled to
Switzerland, where, with the help of Sergio De Benedetti, he managed to make his way to the Parisian foreign office of the Communist party. There he encountered a climate of suspicion, and strong temptations to purge the group, since the Communist Internationalhad already denounced the presence of Italian agent provocateurs in the Italian branch. Eugenio Albo, who overseered the newspaper 'The Voice of Italians' ("La Voce degli Italiani") in fact would later be exposed as a spy of the OVRA. Even though no specific charges were laid against him - indeed, he was even considered as a potential editor for a newspaper that was to be published in Alexandria(the idea did not bear fruit) - Curiel passed months of great bitterness in Paris, an experience that led him, in January 1939 to take up contacts with other exponents of antifascism abroad, both socialists and members of the Catholic Justic and liberty("Giustizia e libertà") movement. In the homonymous newspaper of this group he wrote an article entitled "Discussion of unionism" and passed on to the socialist Giuseppe Faravellia short essay he had written, "The working masses and the fascist unions" ("Masse operaie e sindacato fascista") [Both now available in E. Curiel, cit., I, 229-235] where he reaffirmed the necessity of using the fascist unions to undertake antifascist political work with union workers. Curiel's intention was to set up a unified front of action uniting communists, socialists and Catholic activists of the "Justice and Liberty" movement, though the last-named was decidedly opposed to the proposition. The socialists were divided over this prospect.
In February 1939, Curiel returned to
Milano, where he lodged with his sister Grazia. In April he returned once more to Switzerland, where he discussed matters with Pietro Nenni, who was well-disposed to the idea of an accord with communists, and the possibility of organizing groups in Milan to pursue concerted action. he then attempted to enter France illegally, but was stopped at the border, and consigned to the Swiss police who accompanied him back to the frontier with Italy. In Italy, in articles and letters, he continued to press for the necessity of establishing 'bonds' (with the communists' that would 'enlargeo our contacts with the masses and exercise some influence on the bureaucratic tendencies of the PCIand its blind, passive discipline'. [ E. Curiel, cit., I, 258] Curiel was in Trieste, on the 24 giugno1939, when the police identified and arrested him. .
Transferred to the Milanese prison of
San Vittore, he revelead nothing that his interrogators did not already know. On January the 13th. 1940 a penale commission condemned him to a period of five years of internment on the island of Ventotene, where Curiel arrived on january the 26th.
Internment was less harsh than imprisonment, but those who had been interned were obliged to survive on the upkeep provided by monies their families sent them. In the difficult conditions of those years - soon after Italy entered into the war - one was often reduced to starvation rations. Several hundred detainees, mostly communists, were expedited to the island, among them
Luigi Longo, Giovanni Roveda, Walter Audisio, Pietro Secchia, Umberto Terracini, Camilla Ravera, and Giuseppe Di Vittorio. Among the socialists and the Catholic action militants are to be counted figures like Sandro Pertini, Altiero Spinelli, Ernesto Rossi, Riccardo Bauerand Curiel's friend, Eugenio Colorni, who had been arrested in September 1938.
On the 21st of August 1943, following the collapse of the fascist regime, Curciel left the island to join the resistance in Milan. There he directed the daily, underground newspaper
L'Unità, together with another, called Our Struggle("La nostra lotta"), and worked to promote the establishment of a unitary organization, the "Youth Front for National Independence and Liberty" (Fronte della gioventù per l'indipendenza nazionale e per la libertà.) involving antifascist youths of all political orientations. It was during this phrase that he sketched out his theory on 'progressive democracy', which is considered to be his most important theopretical contribution to antifascism.
On the 24th of february 1945 he was recognized in the street by an informer, and promptly assassinated by a squad of soldiers belonging to the
Republic of Salò. In the document accompanying the posthumous award accorded to him, of the Gold Medal for valour, he is described as an 'Ideal leader and splendid example for the youth of Italy'.
He was the cousin of
Henri Curiel, a political activist in Egypt and France.
*N. Briamonte, "La vita e l'opera di Eugenio Curiel", Milano 1979
*P. de Lazzari, "Eugenio Curiel, al confino e nella lotta di liberazione", Milano 1981
*E. Garin, "Intellettuali italiani del XX secolo", Roma 1996 ISBN 978-88-359-4151-4
* [http://matematica.uni-bocconi.it/storia/letterac/curiel.htm Biografia PRISTEM]
* [http://www.anpi.it/uomini/curiel.htm Biografia ANPI]
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