- Higher education in Ontario
Higher education in Ontario includes postsecondary education and skills training regulated by the Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities and provided by universities, colleges of applied arts and technology, and private career colleges.Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2007, March 20). "Role of the ministry". Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/tcu/about/role.html] The current minister is
John Milloywho assumed the role October 30, 2007 from the previous minister Chris Bentley. The ministry administers laws covering twenty-two public universities,Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2008, June 26). "Find a university". Retrieved June 26, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/list/univers.html] seventeen privately funded degree granting institutions,Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2007, March 16). "Privately funded Ontario institutions with degree-granting authority". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/priv_deg.html] twenty-four colleges,Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2008, April 9). "Find a college". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/list/college.html] and over 500 private career colleges.Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2007, September 19). "Private career colleges". Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/private.html] The Canadian constitutionprovides each province with the responsibility for higher educationand there is no corresponding national federal ministry of higher education.Department of Justice Canada (n.d.). "Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982". Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/const/c1867_e.html#provincial] Within Canadian federalismthe division of responsibilities and taxing powers between the Ontario and Canadian governments creates the need for cooperation to fund and deliver higher education to students. Each higher education system aims to improve participation, access, and mobility for students. A university and college admissionssystem manages the process of students' entry into higher education institutions. The Ontario Universities' Application Centreand Ontario College Application Serviceare two central organizations that assist with this admissions process. Upon admission, students may get involved with regional student representation with the Canadian Federation of Students, the Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, or through the College Student Alliancein Ontario.
Pre-confederation, 1791 - 1866
Constitutional Act of 1791by the British House of Commons divided the old province of Quebec into two British colonies. The western colony became Upper Canadawith John Graves Simcoeas its first head of state by fulfilling the role of Lieutenant Governor. Governor Simcoe was the first advocate for establishing educational institutions in the new colony to increase citizens' connection to Britain and prevent the incursion of influence from post-revolutionary schools in the United States. [McNab, G. G. (1925). "The development of higher education in Ontario". Toronto, ON: The Ryerson Press, pp. 6 - 9.] In 1797, the Duke of Portland agreed, on behalf of the British King, to the request from the Legislative Counciland House of Assemblyof Upper Canada for a portion of Crown Land to support the foundation of grammar schools and a college or university. [McNab, G. G. (1925). "The development of higher education in Ontario". Toronto, ON: The Ryerson Press, pp. 10 - 12.] Higher education preceded Canadian confederationwith the establishment of private and sectarian universities in Ontario during the early 1800s.Fisher, D., Rubenson, K., Bernatchez, J., Clift, R., Jones, G., Lee, J., MacIvor, M., Meredith, J., Shanahan, T., & Trottier, C. (2006). "Canadian federal policy and postsecondary education". Winnipeg, Manitoba: Printcrafters, pp. 9-10.] Initially, Ontario's first three universities were formed with religious affiliations.Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (2006, January 5). "Postsecondary education in Ontario". Retrieved June 8, 2008, from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=126.96.36.199.31.32] Established in 1827, King's College was associated with the Church of Englandthrough its first president John Strachan. The Presbyterian Church established Queen's Universityin 1841. In addition, the Roman Catholic Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculateestablished the College of Bytown in 1848. In 1849, the government of Upper Canadadecided to secularize King's College and the institution became the University of Toronto. In 1866, the College of Bytown completed its conversion to the University of Ottawathrough incorporation by Royal charterfrom the government in London, England.University of Ottawa (2006, December 20). "Timeline: Major milestones 1866". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.uottawa.ca/since1848/]
Post-confederation, 1867 - 1899
In 1867, section 91 of the
Canadian constitutionestablished that the government of Canada has responsibility for trade and commerce whereas section 93 conferred to each province responsibility for education. Higher education in Canadareflects this division of powers in Canadian federalismthrough the overlapping of interests and responsibilities between the provinces and the federal presence in higher education in Canada. In 1868, the province of Ontario withdrew financial support for religious universities. In 1874, the Canadian government established the first federal institution of higher education in Kingston, Ontario, the Royal Military College of Canada. In 1876, the Ontario Society of Artists founded the forerunner to the Ontario College of Art & Designat the Toronto Normal School. In 1878, Bishop Isaac Hellmuthfounded the "Western University of London" with religious affiliation to the Anglican Diocese of Huronand later the institution became the non-denominational University of Western Ontario. In 1887, William McMasterfounded McMaster Universityby merging Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College. By 1899, there were seven higher education institutions established in Ontario.
Early twentieth century, 1900 - 1945
In 1900, the
Dominican Orderestablished the Dominican College of Philosophy and Theology that later became the Dominican University College. [Dominican University College (2005, October 22). "The college at a glance". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.collegedominicain.com/English/college.cfm] In 1906, controversy over the role of the Ontario government and the leadership of the University of Torontoled to the Flavelle Commission that articulated a separation of powers, resulting in the widespread adoption of the bicameral model for university governance in Canada.Jones, G. & Skolnik, M. (1997). Governing boards in Canadian universities [Electronic version] . "The Review of Higher Education", 20, 3, p. 278.] In 1911, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canadafounded the Waterloo Lutheran Seminarythat was associated with the development of the University of Waterlooand Wilfrid Laurier University. [Waterloo Lutheran Seminary (n.d.). "FAQ: General enquiries". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.seminary.wlu.ca/faq-general.php] Higher education was a low-priority under the provincial government of Mitchell Hepburndue to the effects of the Depression but universities supported the national war effort through funding from the government of Canada. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, pp. 140 - 141.] In 1942, the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning established the non-denominational Carleton College that later became Carleton University. By 1945, there were three publicly supported secular universities, six denominational private colleges, and several vocational institutes. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, p. 140.]
Late twentieth century, 1946 - 1999
In 1946, the government of Ontario established the Lakehead Technical Institute in Thunder Bay that later became
Lakehead University. In 1948, Howard Kerrpersuaded the government of Ontario to turn the Training and Re-Establishment Institute for veterans into the Ryerson Institute of Technology. Over the following forty-five years, the institute expanded its vocational focus to become Ryerson University. [Ryerson University (n.d.). "Tour Ryerson". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.ryerson.ca/campuslife/dev/oldsite/tour/history.html] In 1951, the provincial government hired a part-time consultant on higher education policy matters to support the Minister of Education given that no office in the government or agency had ever had full responsibility for the sector. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, p. 142.] In 1956, Premier Leslie Frostreplaced the consultant with a committee of senior government officials who served two years before being replaced by civil servants from the government departments of economics, education and treasury who made up the "University Committee". [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, p. 142.] In 1957, Gerry Hagey, Ira Needles, and Rev. Cornelius Siegfried founded the Waterloo College Associate Faculties that later became the University of Waterloo. [University of Waterloo (n.d.) "About UW: History". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.uwaterloo.ca/aboutuw/history/] In 1959, the government of Ontario established York Universityand Murray Rossserved as the founding president. By 1960, there were five publicly supported secular universities. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, p. 142.] In 1960, the government of Ontario forms Laurentian Universityas a bilingual federation representing Roman Catholic, United, and Anglican religious affiliations. [Laurentian University (n.d.). "Historical highlights". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.laurentian.ca/Laurentian/Home/About+LU/Historical+highlights.htm] In 1961, the government expanded and changed the "University Committee" into an "Advisory Committee on University Affairs" consisting of civil servants and non-government members. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, pp. 143 - 144.] In 1962, the government of Ontario formed the University of Windsoras part of turning Assumption Universityinto a federated institution. In 1964, the government introduced a Department of University Affairs within the Ministry of Education under Minister Bill Davis. [Jones, G. (1997). Higher education in Ontario. In G. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives". New York, NY: Garland Publishing, p. 144.] In the same year, the provincial government founded Brock Universitynamed after Sir Isaac Brock, the University of Guelphthrough integrating three institutions, and Trent University. In the mid-1960s, the government of Ontario passed legislation to establish a new category of post-secondary institutions called Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATS) with an emphasis on vocational, technological, and general education. [Ministry of Education and Training (1996). "Future goals for Ontario Colleges and Universities". Discussion paper, p. 3.] In 1966, the provincial government began to establish a community collegesystem with the Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology as the first college. In 1967, the government of Ontario established twenty-three more CAATs. The universities retained a monopoly over the right to grant degrees and the government defined clear non-degree granting mandates for the CAATs thereby creating a binary system of higher education within Ontario. [Jones, G. (2004). Ontario higher education reform, 1995 - 2003: From modest modifications to policy reforms. "The Canadian Journal of Higher Education", 34, 3, p. 43.] Also in 1967, the government of Ontario responded to citizens' interest to form Algoma College. [Algoma University College (n.d.). "History of Algoma U". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.algomau.ca/view.php?page=ab_auHistory] In addition, the government formed Nipissing College in affiliation with Laurentian University. [Nipissing University (n.d.). "About Nipissing University". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.nipissingu.ca/aboutus/] In 1992, the provincial government converted Nipissing College into Nipissing University. The 1995 Ontario general election provided a large majority for the new Mike Harrisgovernment. After 1995, the provincial government undertook actions that led to increased privatization within higher education, blurred boundaries in the binary structure, institutional differentiation, and the overall system's expansion. [Jones, G. (2004). Ontario higher education reform, 1995 - 2003: From modest modifications to policy reforms. "The Canadian Journal of Higher Education", 34, 3, pp. 44 - 49.] In 1996, the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training released the first review of higher education as a system. [Ministry of Education and Training (1996). "Future goals for Ontario Colleges and Universities". Discussion paper, p. 2.]
Early twenty-first century, 2000 - present
By 2000, there were a total of twenty public universities established in Ontario. In 2002, the government of Ontario created the
University of Ontario Institute of Technologyto increase supply and address a change in the Ontario Academic Creditsystem that created a double cohort of students entering post-secondary education. In 2005, the Honourable Bob Raereleased a comprehensive review of postsecondary education entitled "Ontario: A leader in learning", more commonly known as the Rae Reportor Rae Review. Within four months of its release, the provincial government of Premier Dalton McGuintyimplemented an investment plan for postsecondary education called "Reaching Higher" outlining its strategy until 2010.Office of the premier (2005, May 13). "Reaching higher: The McGuinty government plan for postsecondary education." Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.premier.gov.on.ca/news/Product.asp?ProductID=114] As part of this plan, the provincial government accepted a recommendation of the Rae Report to establish the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontarioas an independent advisory agency. On June 18, 2008, the provincial government converted Algoma College into Algoma University. [Orazietti Constituency Office (2008, June 18). "Orazietti announces Algoma University officially independent institution". Retrieved June 23, 2008, from http://www.davidorazietti.onmpp.ca/REL06182008AUC.htm]
The higher education system in Ontario includes the interaction among government, external advisory bodies, educational institutions, and associations. The
Canadian constitutionallocates final authority for higher education in Ontario to the provincial government. In practice, the responsibility lies with the Minister of Training, Colleges, and Universities who is a member of the Executive Council of Ontario(or cabinet) reporting to the Premier and held accountable by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. The deputy ministermanages the operations of the ministry that includes five main divisions. As a whole, the ministry has responsibility for administration of laws relating to postsecondary education and skills training in Ontario. The divisions cover employment and training, postsecondary education, strategic policy and programs, corporate management and services, and French-language education and educational operations.Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2008, May 29). "Organization chart". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/tcu_chart.pdf] The divisions report to the deputy minister who then reports to the minister. The Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities works with several external advisory bodies to assist the governance of the higher education system in Ontario.Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario (2007, March 16). "Agencies, boards, and commissions". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/abcs/]
Higher education institutions
Ontario is home for three out of the six
Canadian Ivy Leagueuniversities. Governance within Ontario universities generally follows a bicameral approach with separation of authority between a board and senate.Jones, G. & Skolnik, M. (1997). Governing boards in Canadian universities [Electronic version] . "The Review of Higher Education", 20, 3, p. 290.] In total, there are twenty-two public universitiesand seventeen privately funded institutions with degree granting authority in a list of universities in Ontario. In addition, there are twenty-four colleges and over 500 private career colleges that are not classified as universities. Ontario's private career colleges provide specific skills training for employment and must be registered with the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. A program run by ServiceOntarioenables students to search for career colleges providing vocational training in their field of interest.
There are eight
associationsin Ontario that provide representation for faculty, staff, institutions, and students by interacting within the structure of higher education in Ontario.
* Established in 1962, the
Council of Ontario Universities(COU) represents twenty degree granting institutions through a committee consisting of one executive and one academic from each member institution.Council of Ontario Universities (n.d.). "About council". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.cou.on.ca/_bin/home/aboutCouncil.cfm] The COU supports a wide range of activities regarding issues to enhance the role of universities (e.g., [http://www.cou.on.ca/_bin/councilCommittees.cfm Council & Committees] ) and collaboration between institutions to increase effectiveness (e.g., sharing information through [http://www.cou.on.ca/_bin/relatedSites/cudo.cfm Common University Data Ontario] ).
* Established in 1964, the
Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations(OCUFA) represents 15,000 teachers, researchers, and librarians through its interaction with the Ontario government, opposition parties, related agencies, and associations. OCUFA allows its twenty-three member faculty associations to coordinate media relations and research for collective bargaining.Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations (n.d.). "Who we are". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.ocufa.on.ca/] In addition, OCUFA publishes the quarterly journal " Academic Matters", the monthly electronic newsletter "Ontario University Report", and provides research briefs and reports on its website. For advocacy, OCUFA has a separate website entitled [http://www.quality-matters.ca/ Quality Matters] .
* Established in 1974, the [http://www.cousa.on.ca/index.html Confederation of Ontario University Staff Associations & Unions (COUSA)] represents non-union and union non-academic staff by providing a forum to share information, workshops, a common lobbying voice, and a method for collective action. In addition, COUSA participates in a Coalition for Post-Secondary Education that includes the
Ontario Public Service Employees Unionand related higher education associations.Confederation of Ontario University Staff Associations and Unions (2006, October 26). "About COUSA". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cousa.on.ca/aboutcousa.html]
* The twenty-four colleges in Ontario have access to representation and advocacy delivered by [http://www.collegesontario.org/ Colleges Ontario] .
* Established in 1975, the
College Student Alliance(CSA) represents 109,000 students across twenty-three student associations at colleges in Ontario. The CSA focuses on developing its members and advocacy on issues for students at college and college-university institutions.College Student Alliance (n.d.). "Who we are". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.collegestudentalliance.ca/aboutus.asp]
* Established in 1981, the [http://www.cfsontario.ca/ Canadian Federation of Students Ontario] represents 300,000 students across thirty student unions in Ontario. [Canadian Federation of Students Ontario (n.d.). "Overview of the federation". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.cfsontario.ca/english/about.php] The federation focuses on advocacy through effective research, lobbying, and student mobilization. [Canadian Federation of Students Ontario (n.d.). "Approach of the federation". Retrieved May 30, 2008, http://www.cfsontario.ca/english/about-2.php]
* Established in 1992, the
Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliancerepresents 140,000 students at seven Ontario higher education institutions. The alliance focuses on higher education issues related to accessibility, affordability, accountability and quality. [Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance (n.d.). "Vision, mission, and organizational goals". Retrieved May 30, 2008, http://www.ousa.on.ca/sef/page/id/48.html]
* Established in 1995, the
Canadian Alliance of Student Associations(CASA) represents 275,000 students across Canada and five student associations in Ontario. [Canadian Alliance of Student Associations (n.d.). "Member associations". Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.casa.ca/member.asp]
public fundingof higher education in Ontario primarily relies on cooperation between the government of Canadaand the government of Ontario. Public funding of higher education involves direct public funding of institutions for instruction, investment, and researchcombined with funding of students. [Salmi, J. & Hauptman, A. (2006). Resource allocation mechanisms in tertiary education: A typology and an assessment. In Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), "Higher education in the world 2006: The financing of universities" (pp. 60 - 81). Beccles, Suffolk: Palgrave Macmillan.] To fund public higher education institutions, the government of Ontariocan use funds from the Canada Health Transfer, Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing programs for financing instruction and investment. Funding of research is supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, Canada Research Chairsprogram, the [http://www.indirectcosts.gc.ca/ Indirect Costs of Research program] , and through [http://www.nce.gc.ca/ Networks of Centres of Excellence] . Both governments of Canada and Ontario provide funding and support for post-secondary students.
* Parents receive funding from the government of Canada to save money for the post-secondary education of their children. The
Registered Education Savings Plan(RESP) is a financial instrument that acts as a tax shelter. The Canada Education Savings Grantprovides funds to eligible parents to deposit into a RESP account. The Canada Learning Bondtargets assistance to parents less likely to have funds available to contribute to a RESP account.
* Students may receive funding through Canadian student loans from the [http://osap.gov.on.ca/eng/not_secure/funds.htm#amount Canada-Ontario Integrated Student Loan] program, grants or targeted bursaries available through the
Ontario Student Assistance Program, or funds available from the Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation. [Ontario Student Assistance Program (2007, November 1). "Funding available". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://osap.gov.on.ca/eng/not_secure/funds.htm] In addition, students with earnings who have previously contributed to a Canadian retirement tax shelter (i.e., the Registered Retirement Savings Plan) may make tax-free withdrawals under the Canadian tax system using the [http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/tax/individuals/topics/rrsp/llp/menu-e.html Lifelong Learning Plan] as long as the funds are repaid within a ten year period. Graduate students may also be eligible for funding through the Ontario Graduate Scholarship program or by applying for funding through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
Participation, access, and mobility
The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities of Ontario through the Ontario’s Student Access Guarantee policy supports post-secondary students in financial need by covering the cost of books, tuitions, and other mandatory fees. [Ontario Student Assistance Program (2007, November 13). "Student Access Guarantee". Retrieved June 1, 2008 from http://osap.gov.on.ca/eng/not_secure/Access_Guarantee_12.htm] Students can determine their eligibility through contacted the financial aid available through Ontario colleges and universities. [Ontario Student Assistant Program (2007, August 25). "Contact Information". Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://osap.gov.on.ca/eng/not_secure/CONTACT_fao_12.htm] Post secondary institutions that want to increase access to students through financial support and wish to become approved for the Ontario Student Assistance Program need to apply to OSAP. [Ontario Student Assistance Program (2008, March 6). "Financial Aid Administrators at Institutions that are Not Approved for OSAP". Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://osap.gov.on.ca/eng/not_secure/Administrators_not_approved_12.htm] Administrators of post-secondary and lending institutions who want to participate in the administration of Ontario Student Assistance Program should get permission from their Program Administrator or Banking Coordinator. [Ministry of Training Colleges and Universities Resources Website (n.d.). Retrieved June 1, 2008, from https://osap.gov.on.ca/internal/resources.htm]
The Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities of Ontario, Dr. Milloy, works regularly with the Ontario Student Assistance Appeal Board and the Ontario Graduate Scholarship Program Selection Board to consider students appeals from OSAP and policies concerning accessibility to the Ontario Graduate Scholarship program. The Ministry’s Review of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000 is being reviewed by the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities to ensure that all Ontarians have access to an affordable, high quality education. At the government's request, the Honourable Bob Rae conducted a review of postsecondary education in Ontario. "Reaching Higher: The McGuinty Plan for Post-Secondary Education" responds to the recommendations of that review. "Reaching Higher" will provide a cumulative investment of $6.2 billion in Ontario's postsecondary education and training system by 2009-10 with the expectation that this investment will result in more access, higher quality and better accountability. [Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities (2007, July 26). "Legislation". Retrieved June 1, 2008, http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/tcu/about/statutes.html]
According to the
Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance(OUSA), student access includes offering to all willing and qualified students the opportunity to enter and complete their degrees within Ontario’s system of post-secondary education. OUSA sates that, despite the $6.2 additional billion, Ontario faces accessibility challenges since certain groups such as lower-income backgrounds, aboriginal, rural and single parent students are underrepresented in the post secondary system. [Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance (n.d.). "Our Research Policy". Retrieved May 30, 2008, from http://www.ousa.on.ca/sef/page/id/64.html]
For provincial mobility, the Ontario Transfer Guide Index provides information about student transfer, credit transfer and policy among post secondary education institutions in Ontario and other provinces in Canada. [Ontario College University Transfer Guide (n.d.). "Search Transfer Agreement". Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.ocutg.on.ca/search/servlet/ucGeoSearch?inst=e&RIType=U] It also provides information for international students on pre-requisites for admission and credential recognition. [Ontario Colleges University Transfer Guide (n.d.). "Search for General Policy on Transfer by Institution". Retrived May 29, 2008, from http://www.ocutg.on.ca/search/servlet/policySearch?inst=U&lang=E] For international mobility, the Canadian Centre of International Credentials (CICIC), a unit of the Council of Ministers of Education of Canada (CMEC), offers information about admissions to colleges and universities and credential assessment services across Canada. CICIC advocates for a wider recognition of higher education and professional qualifications. [Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (2008, March 17). Canadian International Centre for International Credentials. "Studying in Canada". Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.cmec.ca/cicic-study.en.stm] [Ontario Universities’ Application Centre (n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.ouac.on.ca/] [Ontario Colleges' Application Centre (n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.ontariocolleges.ca]
The future of Higher Education in Ontario will face gradual economic constraint, increasing integration with business and industry, and an extensive use of technology. [Skolnik, M. (1998). Higher education in the 21st century: Perspectives on an emerging body of literature. "Futures". 30, 7, pp. 635-650.] Internalization of higher education is also on the rise. The number of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada is increasing rapidly. [Weber, L. (2007). Internationalization of Canadian Universities: Where Are We Now? "Brock Education", 16, 2, pp. 38 - 43.] Students who are involved in higher education programs in western developed economies may have a gross rate of return to a year's additional education ranges between 5 and 10 per cent. The World Bank, amongst other development specialists, has recognized that low levels of education are often key risk factors for poverty. A TD Economics paper reports that a university-educated worker's weekly earnings are on average 61 per cent higher than their counterparts with just a high school education. However, in combining the revenues for peer state private and public universities, Ontario invested 44 per cent less annually in its university system compared with the system in the peer states. Continuous under funding of education can be linked to Ontario's prosperity gap. Studies reflect that under funding in education is one of the contributing factors of a $6,000 per person prosperity gap between Ontario and the jurisdictional average. [Ontario undergraduate student alliance (n.d.). How Higher Education Builds a Bright Future. Retrieved May 29, 2008, from http://www.ousa.on.ca/sef/page/id/37.html]
Higher education in Canada
Education in Ontario
Ministry of Education (Ontario)
List of Ontario students' associations
List of universities in Ontario
List of colleges in Ontario
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* Jones, G. (2005). On complex intersections: Ontario universities and governments. In F. Iacobucci & C. Tuohy (Eds.), "Taking public universities seriously" (pp. 174 - 187). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
* Harris, R. S. (1976). "A history of higher education in Canada, 1663 - 1960". Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
* McKillop, A. B. (1994). "Matters of mind: The university in Ontario, 1791 - 1951". Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
* Milway, J. (2005). Post-secondary education and Ontario's prosperity. In F. Iacobucci & C. Tuohy (Eds.), "Taking public universities seriously" (pp. 341 - 359). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
* Skolnik, M. L. (2005). The Rae Review and the structure of postsecondary education in Ontario. In C. M. Beach (Ed.), "A challenge for higher education in Ontario" (pp. 7 - 26). Kingston, ON: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy.
* Snowdon, K. (2005). Assessing the revenue framework and multi-year planning in the Rae Report. In C. M. Beach (Ed.), "A challenge for higher education in Ontario" (pp. 27 - 72). Kingston, ON: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy.
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