- Isotopes of hydrogen
Hydrogen(H) (Standard atomic mass: 1.00794(7) u) has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. Other, highly unstable nuclei (4H to 7H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but not observed in nature.Gurov YB, Aleshkin DV, Berh MN, Lapushkin SV, Morokhov PV, Pechkurov VA, Poroshin NO, Sandukovsky VG, Tel'kushev MV, Chernyshev BA, Tschurenkova TD. (2004). Spectroscopy of superheavy hydrogen isotopes in stopped-pion absorption by nuclei. "Physics of Atomic Nuclei" 68(3):491–497.] Korsheninnikov AA. et al. (2003). Experimental Evidence for the Existence of 7H and for a Specific Structure of 8He. "Phys Rev Lett" 90, 082501.]
Hydrogen is the only element that has different names for its isotopes in common use today. (During the early study of radioactivity, various heavy radioactive isotopes were given names; but such names are rarely used today). The symbols D and T (instead of 2H and 3H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium.
IUPACstates that while this use is common it is not preferred.
1H is the most common hydrogen isotope with an abundance of more than 99.98%. Because the nucleus of this isotope consists of only a single
proton, it is given the descriptive but rarely used formal name "protium".
2H, the other stable hydrogen isotope, is known as "
deuterium" and contains one proton and one neutronin its nucleus. Deuterium comprises 0.0026 – 0.0184% (by mole-fraction or atom-fraction) of hydrogen samples on Earth, with the lower number tending to be found in samples of hydrogen gas and the higher enrichments (0.015% or 150 ppm) typical of ocean water. Deuterium is not radioactive, and does not represent a significant toxicity hazard. Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are used as a non-radioactive label in chemical experiments and in solvents for 1H- NMR spectroscopy. Heavy water is used as a neutron moderatorand coolant for nuclear reactors. Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion.
3H is known as "
tritium" and contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus. It is radioactive, decaying into helium-3through β− decaywith a half-lifeof 12.32 years.Miessler GL, Tarr DA. (2004). "Inorganic Chemistry" 3rd ed. Pearson Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA] Small amounts of tritium occur naturally because of the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric gases; tritium has also been released during nuclear weapons tests. It is used in nuclear fusion weapons, as a tracer in isotope geochemistry, and specialized in self-powered lightingdevices. Tritium was once routinely used in chemical and biological labelling experiments as a radiolabel(this has become less common). D-T nuclear fusionuses tritium as its main reactant, along with deuterium, liberating energy through the loss of mass when the two nuclei collide and fuse under massive temperatures.
4H is a highly unstable
isotopeof hydrogen. The nucleus consists of a proton and three neutrons. It has been synthesised in the laboratory by bombarding tritiumwith fast-moving deuteriumnuclei.cite web|last=Ter-Akopian |url=http://content.aip.org/APCPCS/v610/i1/920_1.html |title=Hydrogen-4 and Hydrogen-5 from t+t and t+d transfer reactions studied with a 57.5-MeV triton beam] In this experiment, the tritium nuclei captured neutrons from the fast-moving deuterium nucleus. The presence of the hydrogen-4 was deduced by detecting the emitted protons. Its atomic massis 4.0279121. It decays through neutron emissionand has a half-lifeof 9.93696x10-23 seconds.
5H is a highly unstable
isotopeof hydrogen. The nucleus consists of a proton and four neutrons. It has been synthesised in the laboratory by bombarding tritiumwith fast-moving tritium nuclei.cite web|last=Ter-Akopian |url=http://content.aip.org/APCPCS/v610/i1/920_1.html |title=Hydrogen-4 and Hydrogen-5 from t+t and t+d transfer reactions studied with a 57.5-MeV triton beam] [Cite journal
volume = 87
issue = 9
pages = 92501
last = Korsheninnikov
first = A. A.
coauthors = M. S. Golovkov, I. Tanihata, A. M. Rodin, A. S. Fomichev, S. I. Sidorchuk, S. V. Stepantsov, M. L. Chelnokov, V. A. Gorshkov, D. D. Bogdanov
title = Superheavy Hydrogen 5H
journal = Physical Review Letters
date = 2001] In this experiment, one tritium nucleus captures two neutrons from the other, becoming a nucleus with one proton and four neutrons. The remaining proton may be detected, and the existence of hydrogen-5 deduced. It decays through
neutron emissionand has a half-lifeof 8.01930x10-23 seconds.
6H decays through triple
neutron emissionand has a half-lifeof 3×10−22 seconds.
7H consists of a
protonand six neutrons. It was first synthesised in 2003 by a group of Russian, Japanese and French scientists at RIKEN's RI Beam Science Laboratory by bombarding hydrogenwith helium-8atoms. In the resulting reaction, the helium-8's neutrons were donated to the hydrogen's nucleus. The two remaining protons were detected by the "RIKEN telescope", a device composed of several layers of sensors, positioned behind the target of the RI Beam cyclotron [Cite journal
volume = 90
issue = 8
pages = 82501
last = Korsheninnikov
first = A. A.
coauthors = E. Y. Nikolskii, E. A. Kuzmin, A. Ozawa, K. Morimoto, F. Tokanai, R. Kanungo, I. Tanihata, N. K. Timofeyuk, M. S. Golovkov
title = Experimental Evidence for the Existence of 7H and for a Specific Structure of 8He
journal = Physical Review Letters
date = 2003] .
Hydrogen-like exotic atoms
Positronium (Ps or e+e-)
Positronium is an
exotic atommade up of a positron (the electron's positively charged antiparticle) and an electron. Decays to 2 or more gamma-quantadue to annihilationof its components.
Muonium (Mu or µ+e-)
A muonium particle is an
exotic atommade up of an antimuon (the muon's positively charged antiparticle) and an electron,GoldBookRef|title=muonium|url=http://goldbook.iupac.org/M04069.html] and is given the symbol Mu or µ+e−. During the muon's 2 µs lifetime, muonium can enter into compounds such as muonium chloride (MuCl) or sodium muonide (NaMu). [http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2001/pdf/7302x0377.pdf Names for muonium and hydrogen atoms and their ions] iupac.org (PDF)]
* The isotopic composition refers to that in water.
* The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges should be applicable to any normal terrestrial material.
* Commercially available materials may have been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. Substantial deviations from the given mass and composition can occur.
* Tank hydrogen has a 2H abundance as low as 3.2×10-5 (mole fraction).
* Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
* Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
* Isotope masses from [http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/index.html Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation] by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in "Nuclear Physics" A729 (2003).
* Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from [http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/7506/7506x0683.html Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)] . "Pure Appl. Chem." Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and [http://www.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/atomic-weights_revised05.html Atomic Weights Revised (2005)] .
* Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
** Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. [http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties] , Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
** National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the [http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/ NuDat 2.1 database] (retrieved Sept. 2005).
** David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition", online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.
In the 1955 satirical novel "
The Mouse That Roared", the name quadium was given to the hydrogen-4 isotope that powered the "Q-bomb" that the Duchy of Grand Fenwickcaptured from the United States.
* [http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/7/3/3 News of hydrogen-7 discovery]
* [http://content.aip.org/APCPCS/v610/i1/920_1.html Article on hydrogen-4 and hydrogen-5] (login required)
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