- Garbage disposal
A garbage disposal, waste disposal unit, or garburator / garbarator (Canada) is a device, usually electrically-powered, installed under a
kitchen sinkbetween the sink's drainand the trap which shreds food waste into pieces small enough to pass through plumbing.
Garbage disposal units are widely used in
North American households, but far less commonly used in Australasia. In nations with ready access to water and an industrial base, these devices are generally permitted.
European Uniondoes not authorize food waste disposals per EN 12056-1, § 4.6, [European Norm EN 12056, §4.6, Brussels: CEN1986] but local law in the following countries does permit them:
** United Kingdom
** IrelandFact|date=September 2008
** NorwayFact|date=September 2008
** SwedenFact|date=September 2008
** DenmarkFact|date=September 2008
** SpainFact|date=September 2008
* On the African continent, this device is practically unknown.Fact|date=September 2008
Some local authorities in Britain subsidise the purchase of garbage disposal units in order to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill. [http://www.wastemissionimpossible.org.uk/sinkyourwaste/index.html]
Some say that
sewage treatmentplants cannot cope with the extra load of kitchen waste disposal units. The load of organic carbon that reaches the treatment plant increases and consumption of oxygen increases. The result is larger amounts of solids. However, if the waste water treatment is finely controlled the organic carbon may help to keep the bacterial decomposition running. Carbon may be deficient in that process. If no waste water treatment is performed the extra load of pollutants is detrimental to the environment. Also, other chemicals in the waste are problematic.
Use of these food processing units increases household water use, but their impact on business water use (in restaurants) is generally not statistically significant.
Many standard disposal units allow a
dishwasherto be connected, and some more expensive dishwashers are equipped with a small built-in garbage disposal units, making it unnecessary to scrape plates before washing them.
The garbage disposal was invented in 1927 by John W. Hammes. He was an
architectworking in Racine, Wisconsin. After eleven years of development, his InSinkEratorcompany put his disposer on the market in 1938.
In many cities in the
United Statesthe municipal sewage system had regulations prohibiting running food waste(garbage) into the system. InSinkErator spent considerable effort, and was highly successful in convincing many localities to rescind these prohibitions. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4348/is_199907/ai_n15191020 Cox of In-Sink-Erator dies of cancer at 84, Contractor, July 1999] ] Many localities mandated the use of disposers. [ [http://www.insinkerator.com/about/heritage.html Insinkerator on its heritage] ] For many years, garbage disposals were illegal in New York Citybecause of a perceived threat of damage to the city's sewersystem. The ban was rescinded on September 11, 1997by local law 1997/071 which amended section 24-518.1, NYC Administrative code. [ [http://www.nyccouncil.info/issues/bill_details.cfm?ID=Int%201016-1997-A&TYPE=all&YEAR=1997&HISTORY=YES NYC Council Issue 1997] ] In 2008, the city of Raleigh, North Carolinaattempted a ban on the replacement and installation of garbage disposals which also extended to outlying towns sharing the city's municipal sewage system, although rescinded. Violations of this ban faced civil penalties of up to $25,000 per day and interruption of water and sewer services. [ [http://www.raleigh-nc.org/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_306_210_0_43/http%3B/pt03/DIG_Web_Content/news/public/News-PubAff-Council_Approves_Ban_On_-20080305-17023939.html City of Raleigh | Council Approves Ban On New And Replacement Garbage Disposals] ]
Garbage disposal units became popular in American
kitchens of the better-off in the 1970s and 1980s. The EUprohibited the use generally with the option for member countries to make exceptions, and local authorities generally emphasize the prohibition: the reason is supposedly the additional load on sewage treatmentplants which would make sewage treatment more expensive than the compostingof kitchen waste. [ [http://dip.bundestag.de/btd/13/093/1309308.pdf German MP replies why the disposer is not allowed in the EU, p. 37] de icon] In the U.S. 47% of homes had disposal units as of 2007, but in the United Kingdomthis was only 6%. [ [http://money.guardian.co.uk/ethicalliving/story/0,,1839748,00.html Guardian, August 6, 2006, Two Counties offer incentives to install food waste disposals] ]
torque, insulated electric motor, usually rated at 200–750 watts (¼ to 1 horsepower) for a domestic unit, spins a circular turntable mounted horizontally above it. Induction motors rotate at 1,400–1,800 rpm and have low starting torque; commutator motors rotate at higher speeds (about 2,800 rpm), have high starting torque, and are usually lighter. [ [http://www.nettally.com/palmk/GDpower.html Garbage Disposal power on Nettally.com] ] However commutator motors are noisier than induction motors, partially due to the higher speeds and partially because the commutator brushes rub on the slotted armature. [ [http://home.howstuffworks.com/question338.htm Noise from universal motors vs. induction motors at howstuffworks.com] ] The higher starting torque of those appliances with a permanent magnet motor secures in most cases that there will be no blockage.
The added weight and size of induction motors might be of concern. Many models have some degree of sound insulation.
The turntable is surrounded by a shredder ring, which has sharp slots. The food waste sits on the turntable and through
centrifugal forceis forced to its perimeter and through the shredder ring. The turntable has a number of swiveling lugs—similar to little hammers attached to its topside—which assist in forcing the waste through the shredder. Except for special models, most of the food waste disposers do not have any sharp blades or scissors.Waste is fed into a chamber above the turntable and drops on the turntable. The chamber may have a rubber partial closure through which waste can be pushed without letting cutleryand other objects fall in, but essentially the chamber is open at the top, and there is access to the turntable. This is useful in the case of a jam: The turntable can be forced round by pushing with a wooden spoon handle or similar object until the jam clears. Waste that cannot be ground successfully can be removed manually.
Most units are of the continuous-feed type, allowing waste to be added as the unit runs. Batch-feed models are also available with a lid that must be locked before operation, making it impossible to run the machine when a user is trying to clear a jam by hand and preventing cutlery, etc. from falling in.
Some commercial and high-end domestic disposals also have an undercutter blade that revolves below the turntable and chops the ground waste, including fibrous material which could cause a drain clog, finer. These disposals can handle fibrous waste such as
artichokeleaves that cannot be successfully ground in a standard disposal. Waste disposal units may jam but can usually be cleared either by forcing the turntable round from above or by turning the motor using a hex-key wrench inserted into the motor shaft from below. Very hard objects accidentally or deliberately introduced, such as metal cutlery, can damage the waste disposal unit and become damaged themselves. More problematic are drain blockages caused by shredded waste that is fibrous (artichoke leaves) or starchy ( potatopeelings).
Some higher-end units have automatic reversing. By using a slightly more-complicated centrifugal starting switch, the split-phase motor rotates in the opposite direction from the previous run each time it is started. This can clear minor jams but is claimed to be unnecessary by some manufacturers: Since the late 1970s most disposal units have swivel impellers which make reversing unnecessary. [ [http://www.joneca.com/permanent-magnet-vs_-induction.html Magnet and induction motors in Commodore Disposers] ]
Another kind of garbage disposal unit is powered by water pressure rather than electricity and does not pose an electrical hazard. [ [http://www.diynetwork.com/diy/home_improvement/article/0,2037,DIY_13954_2268615,00.html Information on a water-powered food disposer] ] Instead of the turntable and grind ring described above, an alternative machine has a water-powered unit with an oscillating piston with blades attached to chop the waste into fine pieces. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9801EFD61F31F935A25751C1A96F958260 New Garbage Disposal Runs on Water Power, NY Times, December 16, 1999] ] Because of this cutting action, they can handle fibrous waste. Water-powered units take longer than electric ones for a given amount of waste and need fairly high water pressure to function properly.
watershould always be kept running when the disposal is switched on to prevent damage to the blades and wash away the chopped waste without allowing it to build up and clog the drains. Hot water tends to dissolve easily-flushed solid shredded pieces of fat, which can then solidify and block the drain.
Provision must be made to supply and switch power to the waste disposal unit. A conventional
electric switchcan be used, which requires wiring to be installed and poses a potential electric shockhazard if used with wet hands. An air switch which delivers a puff of air to operate an electric switch remote from the operator is safer. Alternatively, a wireless remote control switchcan be used.
If a garbage disposal is discovered to have a "frozen lug", or a hammer that does not move freely, it is recommended that the user feed smaller bones such as those from chicken, through the unit. As seen on an episode of the TV show "How It's Made", ISE company tests its units by feeding frozen steer bones through a sample batch of disposal units, so one does not need fear damage to a unit in good condition with chicken bones. Many repair technicians recommend a weekly feeding of a batch of ice cubes through a running disposer to maintain good cleanliness. This will assist in keeping the lugs or hammers rotating freely and remove any build-up of deposits and minerals. Never feed glass into a garbage disposal.
Be aware that disposers used in conjunction with septic systems will add to the load of the system, and may cause more frequent septic pumping or overflow of sewage into one's yard. Special garbage disposers are marketed toward septic system users that feature an enzyme-adding system that is purported to aid in degradation of food waste while in the septic system.
Selection of a garbage disposal unit should be based on quality and performance. Motors are relatively trouble-free, and unlikely to fail during a reasonable life-span. Metal parts in contact with waste and water (turntable, lugs, chamber, shredding ring) are very prone to
corrosion, and should be made of stainless steelor similar corrosion-resistant material rather than non-stainless steel, even if galvanized. The length of manufacturers' warranties gives some indication of quality, but most units should last much longer than their warranty period.
The size of the chamber and power of the motor (in
horsepoweror watts) determine the amount of waste processed per unit time. Soundproofingto reduce the noiseof operation adds cost.
Induction and commutator motors each have advantages and disadvantages. Feed can be continuous or batched.
Some manufacturers use standard mountings for all their models, making it very easy to replace a unit by any model of the same brand.
Use of garbage disposal units diverts the impact of garbage from methods such as
landfillor incinerators to effluent disposal systems. The advantages and disadvantages need to be weighed for each area.
It is often said that the vast majority of organic waste would be better used for
composting, an option not open to many city-dwellers without an effective collection system. Energyusage is not high; typically 500 to 1500 watts of power are used, but only for a short time.
waterusage varies, but is typically comparable to flushing a toileta couple of times. [http://money.guardian.co.uk/ethicalliving/story/0,,1839748,00.html]
* A garbage disposal is featured prominently in the opening scene of
Robert Redford's 1980 movie " Ordinary People".
* A garbage disposal is featured in 1981's "
The Incredible Shrinking Woman" when Lily Tomlin's character "Pat Kramer" falls down the drain and is almost chopped to bits by her Spanish housekeeper.
* The character
Claire Benneton the TV series "Heroes" severely (and intentionally) mangled her hand in an active garbage disposal unit in the series pilot. This led to a lawsuit by the makers of the particular brand.
* The character
Cosmo Krameron the TV series " Seinfeld" installs a garbage disposal as the drain in his shower so he can prepare vegetables while showering.
* [http://www.nettally.com/palmk/GarbageDisposals.html Page with garbage disposal research]
* [http://www.wikihow.com/Maintain-a-Garbage-Disposal WikiHow: How to maintain a Garbage Disposal]
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