List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide.

Czech Republic

The Czech system of doctoral degrees is almost identical with that of Slovakia, both systems being for a large part inherited from the Czechoslovak system.


* dr. med. "(doctor medicinæ") – Medicine
* dr. jur. "(doctor juris)" – Law
* dr. theol. "(doctor theologiæ)" – Theology
* dr. phil. "(doctor philosophiæ)" – Philosophy (humanities)
* dr. polit. "(doctor politices)" – Economics
* dr. scient. "(doctor scientiarum)" – Science (natural sciences)
* dr. techn. "(doctor technices)" – Technology/engineering
* dr. ling. merc. "(doctor linguæ mercantilis)" – Professional language


This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official. [ [ Annex to the Government Decree on University Degrees ("Asetus yliopistojen tutkinnoista", 794/2004)] Retrieved 5-5-2008. Partly English.]
*"Elintarviketieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Food Science
*"Eläinlääketieteen tohtori" – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
*"Farmasian tohtori"– Doctor of Science (Pharmacy)
*"Filosofian tohtori" – Doctor of Philosophy
*"Hallintotieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Administrative Sciences
*"Kasvatustieteen tohtori" – Doctor of Philosophy (Education)
*"Kauppatieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Science (Economics and Business Administration)
*"Kuvataiteen tohtori" – Doctor of Fine Arts
*"Liikuntatieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Philosophy (Sport and Health Sciences)
*"Lääketieteen tohtori" – Doctor of Medical Science
*"Maatalous- ja metsätieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Science (Agriculture and Forestry)
*"Musiikin tohtori" – Doctor of Music
*"Oikeustieteen tohtori" – Doctor of Laws
*"Psykologian tohtori" – Doctor of Psychology
*"Taiteen tohtori" – Doctor of Arts (Art and Design)
*"Tanssitaiteen tohtori" – Doctor of Arts (Dance)
*"Teatteritaiteen tohtori" – Doctor of Arts (Theater and Drama)
*"Tekniikan tohtori" – Doctor of Science (Technology) or Doctor of Science (Architecture)
*"Teologian tohtori" – Doctor of Theology
*"Terveystieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Health Sciences
*"Valtiotieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Social Sciences
*"Yhteiskuntatieteiden tohtori" – Doctor of Social Sciences


* "Doctorat": Ph.D. equivalent. Traditional mentions are :
** "Doctorat ès lettres": Doctorate of Letters.
** "Doctorat ès sciences": Doctorate of Science.
** "Doctorat en droit"; Doctorate of Laws.
* "Diplôme d'État de docteur" (State Degree of Doctor): professional doctorate equivalent.
** "Diplôme d'État de chirurgien dentiste": Doctor of Dental Surgery.
** "Diplôme d’État de docteur en médécine": Doctor of Medicine.
** "Diplôme d'État de docteur en pharmacie": Doctor of Pharmacy.
** "Diplôme d'État de docteur vétérinaire": Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
* Until 1984 existed a higher doctorate called "Doctorat d'État" and a junior doctorate called "Doctorat de troisième cycle".


* Dr. h.c. ("Doctor honoris causa" - honorary doctor), but: Dr.-Ing. E.h. (German: ehrenhalber)
* Dr.-Ing. ("Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften" - engineering, sometimes Computer Science)
* Dr. iur. ("Doctor iuris" - law), also: Dr. jur. although this is not the correct spelling
* Dr. iur. utr. ("Doctor iuris utriusque" - both Laws, secular and Canon Law, "Doktor beider Rechte" (weltliches und kanonisches Recht))

* Dr. oec. pub. ("Doctor œconomiae publicae" - business administration ("Betriebswirtschaftslehre") or macro- and micro-economics ("Volkswirtschaftslehre"))
* Dr. theol. ("Doctor theologiae" - theology)
* Dr. paed. ("Doctor paed." - education ("Doktor der Pädagogik"))
* Dr. phil. ("Doctor philosophiae" - most of the humanities)
* Dr. rer. medic. ("Doctor rerum medicarum" - "Doktor der Medizinwissenschaften" or Doctor of medical science)
* Dr. rer. nat. ("Doctor rerum naturalium" - literally "Doctor of natural things" - all natural sciences, mathematics and computer science)
* Dr. rer. soc. ("Doctor rerum socialium." - social sciences ("Doktor der Sozialwissenschaften"))
* Dr. rer. pol. ("Doctor rerum politicarum" - economics, business administration, sociology and related subjects)

Despite the name not a genuine doctoral degree, but equivalent to a Masters Degree:
* Dr. med. ("Doctor medicinae" - medicine), also Dr. med. dent. for dentists and Dr. med. vet. for veterinarians


The system of Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical with that of the Czech Republic.

Doctoral degrees gained after graduation

* Doctor of medicine (Medicinæ universæ doctor – MUDr.)
* Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinæ dentalis doctor – MDDr.)
* Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinæ veterinariæ doctor – MVDr.)These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after graduation and rigorous examination

* Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiæ doctor – PhDr.)
* Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor – RNDr.)
* Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmaciæ doctor – PharmDr.)
* Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor – JUDr.)
* Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogiæ doctor – PaedDr., no longer used in the Czech Republic)
* Doctor of theology (Theologiæ doctor – ThDr.)
* Doctor of economy (Rerum commercialum doctor – RCDr., no longer used)
* Doctor of social sciences (Rerum societarum doctor – RSDr., deprecated – used by the Czechoslovak communist regime)These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study

* Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum – CSc., since 1997 replaced by common PhD.)
* Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiae doctor – PhD., awarded since 1997; requires at least 3–5-year doctoral study)
* Doctor of theology (Theologiae doctor – ThD.) – doctoral study in theology
* Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum – DrSc. (DSc. in the Czech Republic); prerequisite: a PhD.-level degree)These degrees are written after the name.

Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees. [ [ Czech law No. 111/1998 Sb.—The University Law (in Czech)] ] In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.

United Kingdom

Higher doctorates in the United Kingdom

* Doctor of Divinity/Divinitatis Doctor (DD)
* Doctor of Canon Law (DCanL)
* Doctor of Civil Law (DCL)
* Doctor of Laws/Legum Doctor (LLD)
* Doctor of Medicine/Medicinæ Doctor (DM or MD)
* Doctor of Music/Musicæ Doctor (DMus or MusD)
* Doctor of Letters/Litterarum Doctor (DLitt or LittD)
* Doctor of Science/Scientiæ Doctor (DSc or ScD)
* Doctor of Literature (DLit) (London's equivalent to the DLitt)

United States

* Doctor of Applied Science (D.A.S.)
* Doctor of Architecture (D.Arch.)
* Doctor of Arts (D.A.)
* Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)
* Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.)
* Doctor of Chemistry (D.Chem.)
* Doctor of Comparative Law (D.C.L.)
* Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.)
* Doctor of Computer Science (D.C.S.)
* Doctor of Criminal Justice (D.C.J.)
* Doctor of Criminology (D.Crim.)
* Doctor of Divinity/Divinitatis Doctor (DD)
* Doctor of Design (Dr.DES.)
* Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)
* Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng.)
* Doctor of Engineering Science (D.E.Sc., Sc.D E.)
* Doctor of Environmental Science and Engineering (D.Env.)
* Doctor of Fine Arts (D.F.A.)
* Doctor of Forestry (D.F.)
* Doctor of Geological Science (D.G.S.)
* Doctor of Health and Safety (D.H.S.)
* Doctor of Health Education (D.H.Ed)
* Doctor of Hebrew Literature/Letters (D.H.L.)
* Doctor of Hebrew Studies (D.H.S.)
* Doctor of Humane Letters (D.Hum.Litt.)
* Doctor of Industrial Technology (D.I.T.)
* Doctor of Information Technology (D.I.T.)
* Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D., J.S.D.)
* Doctor of Law and Policy (L.P.D., D.L.P.)
* Doctor of Library Science (D.L.S.)
* Doctor of Literature and Philosophy (D.Litt. et Phil.)
* Doctor of Medical Science (D.M.Sc.)
* Doctor of Ministry (D.Min., D.M.)
* Doctor of Modern Languages (D.M.L.)
* Doctor of Music (D.Mus, Mus.Doc.)
* Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A., A.Mus.D.)
* Doctor of Musical Education (D.M.E.)
* Doctor of Music Therapy (D.M.T.)
* Doctor of Naprapathic Medicine (D.N.)
* Doctor of Nursing Science (D.N.S./D.N.Sc.)
* Doctor of Practical Theology (ThP.D.)
* Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
* Doctor of Physical Education (D.P.E.)
* Doctor of Physical Therapy (D.P.T.)
* Doctor of Professional Studies (D.P.S.)
* Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D)
* Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.)
* Doctor of Public Health (D.P.H.)
* Doctor of Recreation (D.Rec./D.R.)
* Doctor of Rehabilitation (Rh.D.)
* Doctor of Science (D.Sc., Sc. D.)
* Doctor of Science in Dentistry (D.Sc.D.)
* Doctor of Science and Hygiene (D.Sc.H.)
* Doctor of Science in Veterinary Medicine (D.Sc.V.M.)
* Doctor of the Science of Law (L.Sc.D.)
* Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.)
* Doctor of Social Work (D.S.W.)
* Doctor of Sacred Music (D.S.M.)
* Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.)
* Doctor of Theology (Th.D.)
* Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.)
* Juris Doctor (J.D.) [Association of American Universities Data Exchange. [ Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education] . Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). “ [ Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients] ,” ‘’InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics’’ NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). [ ‘’Ethics Opinion 1969-5’’] . Accessed May 26, 2008. (under “other references” discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). [ University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook] . Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. [ ‘’U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education’’] . Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). ‘’Encyclopedia Britannica’’, 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).]

See also

* List of honorary degrees


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