- Indigenous peoples in Chile
Indigenous peoples in Chile form about 5% of the total population (692,000 self-identified persons of indigenous origins were registered in 2002) [ 2002 Census ] .
Mapuches, from the south, accounted for approximately 85 percent of this number. There were also small populations of Aymara, Atacameno, Rapa Nui, and Kawaskharin other parts of the country. [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78884.htm Report on Human Rights Practices 2006: Chile] . United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor(March 6, 2007). "This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain."]
The Indigenous Law
Following the return to democracy,
Patricio Aylwin's " Concertación" government established a " Comisión Especial de Pueblos indígenas" (Special Commission of Indigenous People), whose report provided the intellectual framework of the " Indigenous Law" (" ley indígena") or law n° 19 253, promulgated on September 28, 1993 by Aylwin [ [http://www.uta.cl/masma/patri_edu/PDF/LeyIndigena.PDF LEY Nº 19.253 - LEY INDÍGENA] es icon] .
The Indigenous Law recognized in particular the
Mapuchepeople, victims of the Occupation of the Araucaníafrom 1861 to 1883, as inherent part of the Chilean nation. Other indigenous people officially recognized included Aymaras, Atacameñas, Collas, Quechuas, Rapa-Nui(inhabitants of Easter Island), Yámanas and Kawashkars. Despite this state proclamation of indigenous rights, conflicts brought by land-occupations and Mapuche's claims lead to state repression and the use of the anti-terrorist law against Mapuche activists, a law voted by the military "junta".
The law established the
National Corporation for Indigenous Development(CONADI), which included directly elected indigenous representatives, advised and directed government programs to assist the economic development of indigenous people.
It also gives indigenous people a voice in decisions affecting their lands, cultures, and traditions and provides for bilingual education (legalizing
Mapudungunlanguage) in schools with indigenous populations.
Approximately one-half the self-identified indigenous population remained separated from the rest of society, largely due to historical, cultural, educational, and geographical factors. Both internal factors and governmental policies limited the ability of indigenous people to participate in governmental decisions affecting their lands, cultures, traditions, and the allocation of natural resources. Indigenous people also experienced some societal discrimination and reported incidents in which they were attacked and harassed. A 2003 Ministry of Planning survey reported that indigenous people earned 26 percent less than nonindigenous citizens for similar work.
Social and economical status
In 2005 CONADI regularized the property titles to approximately 173,000 acres of land that were restored to 300 Aymara families in the north. However, some observers criticized a lack of transparency in CONADI's land restoration processes and favoritism of the Mapuche over other indigenous groups.
The Ministry of Education provided a package of financial aid consisting of 1,200 scholarships for indigenous elementary and high school students in the
Araucania Regionduring 2005. The government also implemented the Indigenous Scholarship Program that benefited 36,000 low-income indigenous elementary, high school, and college students with good academic performances.
The "Mapuche conflict"
There were isolated instances of violent confrontations between indigenous Mapuche groups and landowners, logging companies, and local government authorities in the southern part of the country. The actions took the form of protests and, occasionally, instances of rock throwing, land occupations, and burning of crops or buildings. Many of these actions were initiated by the "
Coordinadora Arauco Malleco" (CAM), an indigenous group that has been accused of terrorist acts.
Three CAM-related Mapuches and a non-indigenous sympathizer remained imprisoned in a 2001 arson case in which antiterrorism penalties were applied. The four initiated a hunger strike in March, demanding the terrorism convictions be voided to allow their release on parole. In April the court acquitted two other individuals of all charges, criminal and terrorist, in the same case. In September the Senate rejected a proposed law to allow the release of the four imprisoned on terrorist charges. Government-sponsored legislation which would clarify the application of the antiterrorism law remained pending at year's end.
The government did not act on a
United Nationsspecial rapporteur's 2003 recommendation that there be a judicial review of cases affecting Mapuche leaders. The government has not applied the antiterrorism law in Mapuche-related prosecutions since 2002.
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