- Roman Baths, Strand Lane
property_name = Roman Baths, Strand Lane
imgage_name = Roman Baths, Strand Lane.jpg
image_size = 200px
caption = The Roman Baths, near the Strand, probably date from the
type = Historic remains
NT/EH/RHS = NT
City of Westminster
public_access = Restricted
address = 5 Strand Lane,
refreshments = No
parking = Paid, on street
shop = No
The Roman Baths, Strand Lane is a cold spring-fed plunge bath beneath 5, Strand Lane, in the
City of Westminster, off the Strand. The baths have a historical reputation of being Roman in origin, though Roman Londonlay convert|1|mi|km|1|lk=on to the east. The visible remains, which lie convert|4|ft|6|in|m|1 below the modern street level, date from a 17th-century refurbishment.
The bath measures convert|15|ft|6|in|m|2|lk=on by convert|6|ft|3|in|m|2, and convert|4|ft|6|in|m|2 deep. Its lining is built from bricks measuring convert|9|in|cm|1|lk=on by convert|3|in|cm|1 and are convert|1.75|in|cm|1 thick; these measurements are more typical of the
Tudor erathan Roman.City of Westminster notice board, at site]
The first written reference to the bath occurs in a 1784 book by
John Pinkerton, describing a 'fine antique bath' in the cellar of a house in 'Norfolk Street in the Strand formerly belonging to the Earl of Arundelwhose house and vast gardens were adjacent [to the site] '. In April 1792, antiquarian, collector and MP William Weddell died 'from a sudden chill' when bathing there.
Charles Knight wrote in "London" (1842) of the "Old Roman Spring Bath", at Strand Lane – suggesting that it shared a source with the nearby Holy Well, just north of the site of the church of
St Clement Danes. [The area, north of the church, including "Holywell Street" was redeveloped in the 19th century. It is now occupied by the Royal Courts of Justice, and the modern London School of Economicsbuildings of Clements Inn.] He noted (of the water) "it is clearly natural, and not artificial, and sparkles as clear as crystal". [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45134 "The Strand (southern tributaries)"] , Old and New London: Volume 3 (1878), pp. 63-84. Date accessed: 24 March 2008.] In "David Copperfield" (1849–50), Dickensspeaks of the old Roman Bath "at the bottom of one of the streets out of the Strand", in which Copperfield had many cold plunges. [Dickens, Charles "David Copperfield" Chapter 35:"Depression" (London, 1849–50)]
The Baths remained open to the public at the end of the 19th century, when the owner thanked his subscribers for their patronage and announced that
"the celebrated Cold Plunging Bath (built by the Earl of Essex in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1588) is open all the year round. It is known to be the most pure and healthy bath in London ensuring every comfort and convenience to those availing themselves of this luxury. This bath, which is strongly recommended by the Medical Profession, is essentially supplied from the Spring, and discharges at the rate of ten tons per diem. Consequently every bather has the advantage of a continual change of water. The old Roman spring water bath, nearly two thousand years old, can be viewed."This bath lay to the south of the remains, under what is now the Norfolk Hotel. Since it was also on Arundel land, the tale of construction by the Earls of Essex – whose home in the Tudor period lay further to the east – is fanciful. The true origin of the baths is lost in time, but it may be that they were built as cisterns for Arundel House over the spring. They were subsequently lost in the 16th century when the estate was broken up, the area was then built over by row houses, and later rediscovered after a fire in 1774.
The modern Strand follows the course of
Akeman Street, a Roman roadrunning parallel to the river, towards Chiswickfrom Roman London. [ [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22101 "Archaeology: The Romano-British Period"] , A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1: Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, The Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes to 1870, Private Education from Sixteenth Century (1969), pp. 64-74. Date accessed: 29 March 2008.] Later, Strand Lane, itself, formed the boundary between the parishes of St Clement Danes and St Mary-le-Strand. The street was thought to originally be the site of a stream leading to the Thames. By the 18th century, this had become a sewer and today is a narrow alley - next to King's College, lying behind the former Aldwych tube station. The spring feeding the bath still flows, but only at a rate of convert|2000|impgal|m3|0|lk=on per/day.
River Thamesoriginally lay at the foot of the street, with a landing point for watermen. In 1865, the Victoria Embankmentwas constructed, with its sewers and District linerailway. The River is now some convert|50|m|ft|0 from the foot of Strand Lane and Victorian buildings lie in between.
The baths are administered and maintained by the City of Westminster, on behalf of the National Trust. The baths are open free of charge on Wednesday afternoons from April to September by appointment only.
* [http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-romanbath/ National Trust description and opening hours]
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