Agamid adenovirus

Agamid adenovirus

Taxobox | color=violet
name = Adenoviruses



image_caption = Transmission electron micrograph of two adenovirus particles
virus_group = i
familia = "Adenoviridae"
genus = "Atadenovirus"
species = Agamid adenovirus 1
species_authority = Wellehan

Agamid adenovirus (Agamid AdV1) is a type of virus in the "Adenoviridae" family. The virus is widespread in captive populations of "Pogona vitticeps", known commonly as the Inland Bearded Dragon, in the United States. Other countries with confirmed cases are Australia, Japan, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, UK and Central America (El Salvador).cite web
url = http://www.reptilerooms.com/adeno.php
title = Adeno Knowledgebase Articles
accessdate = 2008-03-17
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] It is often discovered in association with other infections, and causes increased juvenile mortality and adult deaths.cite web
url = http://sacs.vetmed.ufl.edu/Services/ZooMed/reptileadenovirus/Adenovirus040607.pdf
title = Reptile Adenovirus PCR and Sequencing at the University of Florida PVM
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]

History

The first detection of adenovirus-like particles in Bearded Dragons was reported from New Zealand in 1982 (Julian and Durham, 1985). Since then multiple studies have come out about the virus. University of Florida seems to lead with the most detailed and up to date reports, however University of Illinois is also known to be involved in research of the virus.

Other types of agamid adenovirus

In addition to AdV1, there are two other adenoviruses which can affect agamids:
* Agamid atadenovirus ben
* Agamid atadenovirus wall

Infection and consequences

In a study published by the Journal of Virology, cite web
url = http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=525023
title = Detection and Analysis of Six Lizard Adenoviruses by Consensus Primer PCR Provides Further Evidence of a Reptilian Origin for the Atadenoviruses
accessdate =
author =
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date =
year = 2004
month =
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publisher = Journal of Virology
quote =
] intranuclear inclusions, or infected cells, were found in the intestinal mucosa, hepatocytes, and bile ducts. Even where an Agamid shows no signs of infection, many are believed to be sub-clinically infected, or carriers of the virus. Although they show no signs they can infect others. It is known that the virus is transferable through fecal-oral contact, however it is speculated that it can be passed in ways as of current research are unknown. Agamid Adenovirus is becoming widespread in the United States, with several breeders admitting infection and shutting down their current projects. However some breeders are still not convinced of the dangers of Agamid Adenovirus, thus they do not test, they could be selling Adenovirus positive offspring. As the research of Korean veterinarians, cite web
url = http://jvdi.org/cgi/reprint/14/4/332.pdf
title = An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragonscoinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa
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year = 2002
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] show, baby and juvenile Bearded Dragons have a high mortality rate when born with or exposed to this virus.

The following is quoted from Cheri Smith's compilation of Adenovirus symptomscite web
url = http://www.reptilerooms.com/forumtopic-74.html
title = Cheri Smith on "Adenovirus Symptoms"
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] :"Any animal that is suspected of having this virus should be isolated, never breed and great care taken when handling between animals. All animals in contact with another that is suspected of having it or confirmed should be isolated from each other, never bred, certainly never sold to others that may unknowingly start the cycle again with other animals. One confirmed case had a couple with an ill animal that brought it to a breeder to look at and he followed all safety precautions, only to find the couple handling some of his babies while he was looking at theirs, 10 days later his entire clutch was ill and dying, it passes that easily! Another breeder at a show in NY, returned from the show and had babies dying that tested positive within 2 weeks (since that time, 2 other breeders that attend the same show have also lost their colony of dragons to the virus)"

In 2005 it was noted by Cheri Smith that "Sibling clutches have been tested and some are positive, some are negative in the same clutch. This leads to the theory that some are infected when the eggs pass through the cloaca and pick up viral particles or some are infected before they are shelled when others are spared."cite web
url = http://www.reptilerooms.com/forumtopic-74.html
title = Cheri Smith on "Adenovirus Symptoms"
accessdate =
author =
authorlink = "http://www.reptilerooms.com"
coauthors =
date =
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]

ymptoms

Symptoms of Adenovirus are hard to classify. It is important to note that Adenovirus it self is not the cause of death, as previously stated some Bearded Dragons can show no sign of illness, but for those who do Adenovirus can lower the resistance of the immune system. Bearded Dragons usually test with high levels of parasites, and many of the Bearded Dragons with Adenovirus also tested with high levels of coccidiacite web
url = http://jvdi.org/cgi/reprint/14/4/332.pdf
title = An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragonscoinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa
accessdate =
author =
authorlink =
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date =
year = 2002
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] , Coronavirus has also been seen in Adeno positive Bearded Dragons.

Testing

It is unknown as of this revision of this article if any Veterinarians in mainstream practice are offering tests for Agamid Adenovirus 1, or any other form of Reptile and Amphibian Adenovirus.

*Electron Microscopy or ‘EM’ testing is available through the University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Medicine, [http://treefrog.cvm.uiuc.edu Center for Microscopic Imaging (CMI)]

*Polymerase chain reaction or 'PCR' based testing is available through the University of Florida- this laboratory requires samples to be submitted by a veterinarian. cite web
url = http://sacs.vetmed.ufl.edu/Services/ZooMed/reptileadenovirus/Adenovirus040607.pdf
title = REPTILE ADENOVIRUS PCR AND SEQUENCING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA CVM
accessdate = 2008-03-17
author =
authorlink = "http://www.reptilerooms.com"
coauthors =
date =
year =
month =
work =
publisher =
quote =
]

Treatment

As of this revision of this article no vaccine, treatment or cure for Agamid Adenovirus 1 has been found.

References

Further reading

* [http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/37/6/2007.pdf Immunochromatography Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation in Tissue Culture] JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, June 1999
* [http://www.anapsid.org/adenoviruses.html Adenoviruses in Reptiles] , Melissa Kaplan, 2000

External links

* [http://www.thepats.info Promoting healthier adenovirus free bearded dragons] , The Pogona Adenovirus Testing Society


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