Annona cherimola

Annona cherimola

taxobox



image_caption = Chirimuya
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Magnoliids
ordo = Magnoliales
familia = Annonaceae
genus = "Annona"
species = "A. cherimola"
binomial = "Annona cherimola"
binomial_authority = Mill.
range_


range_map_caption = Current range of uncultivated "A. cherimola".
range_map_caption = Current range of uncultivated "A. cherimola".
synonyms = "Annona pubescens" Salisb. "Annona tripetala" Aitoncite web
url = http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?3479
title = Taxon: "Annona cherimola" L.
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
authorlink = Germplasm Resources Information Network
date = 1997-07-11
format = HTML
work = Taxonomy for Plants
publisher = USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland
] |
Originally called Chirimuya by the people who lived where it was growing in the Andes of South America, "Annona cherimola" is an edible fruit (Cherimoya) bearing species of the genus "Annona" from the family Annonaceae is now widely cultivated mostly for its sweet fruits that share the name "Custard-apple" with others in its family.cite web
url = http://www.bioversityinternational.org/Information_Sources/Species_Databases/New_World_Fruits_Database/qryall3.asp?intIDSpecies=86
title = Result set for: Annonaceae "Annona cherimola"
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Bioversity International
authorlink = Bioversity International
format = HTML
work = New World Fruits Database
]

Common names

* _en. cherimoya, custard-apple, chirimoyo, momona, kelemoio
* _fr. chérimolier, chérimole, chérimoyer, corossol du Pérou
* _de. Cherimoya, cherimolia, cherimoyabaum, Perúanischer fraschenbaum, Chirimoya, Chirimoyabaum, Jamaikapfel, Peruanischer Fraschenbaum, Rahmapfel, Zuckerannone
* _pt. anona (Portugal) or atemóia, cherimóia, anona do Chile, cabeça de negro, chirimólia, fruta do conde (Brasil)
* _es. chirimoyo, anón, chirimorrinón, chirimoya, chirimoya del Perú
* _ja. チェリモア, チェリモヤ
* _it. Cerimolia
* _ru. Аннона шеримоя, Черимоя, Черимойя
* _sw. mtomoko, mtopetopecite web
url = http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/botany/cultivatedplants/?pg=search&str=Annona%20cherimola&fld=&lngID=902182893
title = Search "Annona cherimola"
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Clyde T. Imada, George W. Staples, and Derral R. Herbst
authorlink = Bernice P. Bishop Museum
format = HTML
work = Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawai‘i
publisher = Bishop Museum
] cite web
url = http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Annona.html#cherimola
title = "Annona cherimola" L.
accessdate = 2008-04-17
last = Porcher
first = Michel H. et al.
authorlink = University of Melbourne
format = HTML
work = Sorting Annona Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress
publisher = Institute of Land & Food Resources, University of Melbourne
] cite web
url = http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=1728
title = Current name: "Annona cherimola"
accessdate = 2008-04-17
format = HTML
work = AgroForestryTree Database
publisher = International Center For Research In Agroforestry
] cite web
url = http://www.hear.org/pier/species/annona_cherimola.htm
title = "Annona cherimola" (PIER Species info)
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
authorlink = Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project
date = 2008-04-09
format = HTML
work = PIER species lists
publisher = United States Geological Survey & United States Forest Service
format = HTML
quote = [http://www.hear.org/pier/references/pierref000209.htm Wiggins, I. L.Porter, D. M. 1971. Flora of the Galapágos Islands. Stanford University Press. 998 pp.]
]

Description

"Annona cherimola" is a fairly dense, fast-growing, woody, briefly deciduouscite web
url = http://titanarum.uconn.edu/199500093.html
title = "Annona cherimola" Mill.
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = EEB Greenhouse Staff, University of Connecticut
authorlink = University of Connecticut
date = 2008-04-10
format = HTML
work = Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses
publisher = Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses
] but mostly evergreen low branched, spreading tree or shrub convert|5|m|ft|lk=on to convert|9|m|ft tall.

;Stems and leaves: Mature branches are sappy and woody; young branches and twigs have a matting of short, fine, rust colored hairs.

:Leathery leaves convert|5|cm|in|lk=on to convert|25|cm|in longcite web
url = http://ntbg.org/herbarium/detail.php?tempid=20352
title = Record Detail ANNONACEAE "Annona cherimola" Mill.
accessdate = 2008-04-17
last = Flynn
first = Tim
date = 2002-05-22
format = HTML
work = Herbarium Database
publisher = National Tropical Botanical Garden
] convert|3|cm|in to convert|10|cm|in wide mostly elliptic, rounded at the ends and pointed near the leaf stalk. When young, covered with soft, fine, tangled, rust colored hairs. When mature, hairs only along the veins on the undersurface. Tops hairless and a dull medium green with paler veins, backs velvety, dull grey-green with raised pale green veins. New leaves are whitish below.

:Leaves are single and alternate, 2-ranked attached to the branches with stout convert|6|mm|in|lk=on to convert|10|mm|in long and densely hairy leaf stalks.

;Flowers: Very pale green, fleshy flowers convert|3|cm|in long, with very strong fruity odor, each with three outer, greenish, fleshy, oblong, downy petals and 3 smaller, pinkish inner petals with yellow or brown finely matted hairs outside, whitish with purple spot and many stamens on the inside. They appear on the branches opposite to the leaves, solitary or in pairs or groups of three, on flower stalks that are covered densely with fine rust colored hairs, convert|8|mm|in to convert|12|mm|in long. Buds convert|15|mm|in to convert|18|mm|in long, convert|5|mm|in to convert|8|mm|in wide at the base.

;Fruits and reproduction: Large green conical or heart-shaped compound fruit, convert|10|cm|in to convert|20|cm|in long, and diameters of convert|5|cm|in to convert|5|cm|in, with skin that gives the appearance of having overlapping scales or knobby warts. Ripening to brown with a fissured surface from winter into spring; weighing on the average convert|150|g|oz|lk=on to convert|500|g|oz but extra large specimens may weigh convert|2.7|kg|lb|lk=on or more. The ripened flesh is creamy white and contains numerous edible, hard, brown or black, beanlike, glossy seeds, convert|1|cm|in to convert|2|cm|in long and about half as wide.

:Hand pollinated flowers give more fruits.

:"A. cherimola", preferring the cool Andean altitudes, hybridizes with the other "Annona" species and a hybrid with A. reticulata called atemoya has received some attention in West Africa.cite web
url = http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.UPWTA.1_227&pgs=
title = Entry for "Annona cherimola" Mill. [family ANNONACEAE]
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Aluka
authorlink = Aluka
format = HTML
work = African Plants
publisher = Ithaka Harbors, Inc
]

Distribution

Widely cultivated now, "Annona cherimola" started life in the Andes at altitudes of convert|700|m|ft|lk=on to convert|2400|m|ft where it was spread to the Caribbean. From there it was taken by Europeans to various parts of the tropics. Unlike other Annona speciescite web
url = http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.UPWTA.1_229&pgs=
title = Entry for "Annona glabra" Linn. [family ANNONACEAE]
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Aluka
authorlink = Aluka
format = HTML
work = African Plants
publisher = Ithaka Harbors, Inc
] "A. cherimola" has not successfully naturalized in West Africa, and the Australasians have misidentified "Annona glabra" as this species.

;Native:Neotropic: ::Western South America: Ecuador, Peru::Southern South America: Chile;Current (naturalized and native):Neotropic: cite web
url = http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ANCH9
title = PLANTS Profile, "Annona cherimola" Mill.
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
authorlink = Natural Resources Conservation Service
format = HTML
work = The PLANTS Database
publisher = United States Department of Agriculture,
] cite web
url = http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni
title = Search results
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Australian Plant Name Index (APNI)
authorlink = Australian Plant Name Index
format = HTML
work = Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS)
publisher = Australian Plant Name Index (APNI)
] cite web
url = http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Taxon.aspx?id=_9d7890ef-eee5-4d90-a490-1245f1f1e738&fileName=Flora%204.xml#_9d7890ef-eee5-4d90-a490-1245f1f1e738
title = 1 *"A. cherimola" Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768)
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Landcare Research
authorlink = Landcare Research New Zealand Limited
format = HTML
work = New Zealand Plant Names Database
publisher = Landcare Research Allan Herbarium and New Zealand Plant Names Database
quote = Cherimoya is cultivated in warmer parts of the North Id, especially in the Bay of Plenty. Frs form regularly in the North Id but apparently never form on Raoul.
] ::Caribbean: Florida, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico::Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama::Northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela::Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru::Southern South America: Chile, Brazil:Palearctic: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, France, Italy, Spain, Madeira:Afrotropic: Eritrea, Somalia:Indomalaya: India, Singapore

References

External links

*ITIS|ID=506198|taxon="Annona cherimola" Miller|year=2008|date=17 March
*cite web
url = http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/images/thumbnails/html/annona_cherimola.htm
title = Images of "Annona cherimola"
accessdate = 2008-04-17
author = Forest & Kim Starr
authorlink = Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project
date = 2008-04-09
format = HTML
work = Plants of Hawaii -- Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) Project
publisher = United States Geological Survey & United States Forest Service


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