- Hamburg America Line
The Hamburg Amerikanische Packetfahrt Actien Gesellschaft (HAPAG for short, often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line, sometimes also Hamburg-Amerika Linie or Hamburg Line) was an enterprise established in
Hamburg, Germanyin 1847 for shipping across the Atlantic Ocean. It soon developed into the largest German, and at times the world's largest shipping company, serving the market created by the German immigration to the United States.
In the early years, the Hamburg America Line exclusively connected European ports with North American ports, such as
Hoboken, New Jerseyor New Orleans, Louisiana. With time, however, the company established lines to all continents.
* In 1858, its liner ]
* In 1912, its liner , was unable to find a port in
Cuba, the United States, or Canadawilling to accept the over 950 Jewish refugees on board and had to return to Europe.
Hamburg America Line lost almost the entirety of its fleet twice, as a result of each of
World War Iand World War II. In 1970, the company merged with the Norddeutscher Lloyd("North German Lloyd") of Bremen to establish the current-day Hapag-Lloyd, which itself is owned by TUI AG.
Prescott Bush's tenure as Director for the company, it came under investigation in the U.S. for Nazi propagandaactivities. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/document/document_20070723.shtml BBC - Radio 4 Document - Greenham's Hidden Secret ] ]
Holland America Line
Norwegian America Line
Scandinavian America Line
Swedish America Line
* USS "President Lincoln"
* [http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/hamburg.html The history of the Hamburg-America Line]
* [http://www.maggieblanck.com/Hoboken/Hoboken.html Historic photos of Hoboken and Hamburg America Line ports]
* [http://www.gjenvick.com/PassengerLists/Hapag-AllPassengerLists.html Passenger Lists from the Hamburg-Amerika Linie]
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