- Leading Sacred Harp music
Sacred Harpmusical tradition is unusual in choral music in that the task of leading it is not delegated to a single expert, but is rotated among participants. A number of customs related to leading can be traced to this democratic, non-specialist tradition.
Choosing the leader
In a singing convention (that is, a full-scale, usually annual gathering of singers), the forms of
parliamentary procedureare adhered to, usually in an informal way that uses little time. The convention is presided over by a chair, and there are committees, resolutions, and so on. Among the committees is an arranging committee, whose task is described in the "Rudiments" section of "The Sacred Harp" [1991 "Denson" edition, p. 25] as follows: it "identifies leaders and calls on them to lead, often giving notice to the next leader as well." In modern times, arranging committees distribute the task of leading widely among the singers, so that in all but the largest conventions, everyone who wishes to lead gets a chance; see below for historical practice.
In smaller singings outside the context of conventions, a variety of ways of choosing the leader are found, for instance, rotating through the group in fixed order or spontaneous volunteering. Leading is not required.
The leader's choice of song
Traditionally, a particular leader's appearance is called a "lesson". [Cobb, p. 10] The leader chooses the song or songs that will be sung in the lesson. They are chosen from the edition of "The Sacred Harp" that is being used at the singing. Most often this is either the "Denson edition" or the "Cooper edition" (for discussion of editions, see
Sacred Harp). They offer a choice of 557 and 599 songs, respectively. [Source: http://resources.texasfasola.org/tunecomparisonindex.html]
In a lesson, leaders may be permitted to lead just one song, or sometimes two or three. [1991 rudiments, p. 25] Sacred Harp scholar Buell Cobb asserts that according to "purist" taste, in a lesson consisting of two songs, both should be major or both minor. [Cobb, p. 11] A more strictly adhered-to rule is that no song may be called twice in the same day; leaders who mistakenly call a song already sung are told that the song has been "used", and must pick another.
Leaders choose songs for many reasons: personal taste, a sense that the song would fit well with the time of day it is called, a wish to acquaint other singers with a seldom-called song, a connection between a song and a deceased or sick relative, and so on.
To "call" a song, a leader announces its page number in a loud voice. The phrase "on the top" or "on the bottom" is added for songs appearing two to a page.
The method of leading
Sacred Harp singers sit in a hollow square, with rows of seating for each section surrounding a fairly small central open area. The leader stands in this area, facing the tenors.
Sacred Harp leaders do not use a baton, nor do they use the fairly elaborate motions that symphony and choral conductors use to mark the beat. Rather, a simple down-and-up motion is used, most often made with the open hand. Leading is generally one-handed, with the leader's other hand holding the book. [The use of a music stand would be extremely unusual; Miller (2004; 277).]
The motions of the leading hand reflect the various
time signatureas follows. In two-beat rhythms (2/4, 2/2), the hand moves down on the downbeat and up on the upbeat. Three-beat rhythms (3/4, 3/2) are given by moving the hand halfway down ["Near horizontal", according to the 1991 "Rudiments", p. 16] on the first beat, the rest of the way down on the second, and back up on the third. 6/8 rhythm is treated as a two-beat rhythm, with the hand moving down on the first eighth note and up on the fourth.
4/4 time is likewise normally treated as a binary rhythm, with the hand moving down on the first beat and up on the third. In the original editions of "The Sacred Harp", supervised by B. F. White, this was specified as the only way to lead a 4/4 song. [Cobb, p. 48] However, today some leaders do occasionally adopt a four-beat pattern for leading 4/4 songs, especially in slow rhythm: the hand moves down, left, right, and up on the four beats. [Cobb, p. 48, indicates that the regions that favor four-beat leading for 4/4 songs are "Mississippi and a few areas of north Alabama and north Georgia."]
The choice of tempo is left up to the leader, though leaders differ in their ability to get the group to adopt an unusual tempo. Cobb suggests that the choice of tempo can be contentious: "As a rule, Sacred Harpers get by with little bickering, but they admit that the question of tempo has been an irritant for several decades." [Cobb, p. 49. For discussion of tempo variation and its story, see Cobb, p. 49-51.]
Leaders often turn the body toward a particular section when it makes a musical entrance. This is particularly useful at repeat signs. In a
fuging tune, the leader often turns toward each section as it enters. [Cobb, p. 12]
Leaders normally sing while they lead. Usually, they sing the tenor part while leading, no matter what section they normally occupy; this matches the part of the singers they are directly facing. [Singing tenor is recommended for leaders by (for instance) singing masters David Ivey and Jeff Sheppard, teaching at
Camp Fasola( [http://fasola.org/minutes/search/?q=leading+camp+fasola&n=1690] )]
When the leader's turn ("lesson") is over, she simply returns to her seat. Sacred Harp singers do not applaud after songs.
Assistance in leading from the singers
It is customary for some of the singers to duplicate the motions of the leader's hand, while remaining in their seats. This makes the beat visible to the alto section, to whom the leader's back is turned, and sometimes to other singers as well. This kind of assistance in leading is most often carried out by tenor singers seated on the front bench, who have the best view, and for this reason this spot is often occupied by especially competent singers. [Cobb, p. 143] The support in leading by front-bench tenors also sometimes serves to keep the group together when the leader is a novice. [See, for instance, Carlton (2003, 51), who relates his own experience as a novice leader.]
ources of error
Sometimes singings experience moments where good ensemble is lost, or even the occasional total breakdown. These normally occur at specific moments:
*The initiation of a song that begins with a musical upbeat. The Sacred Harp norm is to start singing the moment the leader moves his hand. To give a measure of silent beats, as orchestral or choral conductors often do, is not standard. Beginning leaders often have trouble starting out with an upbeat motion.
*The leader picks a tempo so unexpected that a beat of two is mistaken for a beat of four, or vice versa. This may occur with leaders who lack the skill of mentally envisioning the tempo before starting.
*Choice points in the music, notably whether a repeat is to be taken, or which verses to sing. Leaders often announce their intentions verbally in advance.
tyle in leading
The 1991 "Rudiments" discourage flamboyance in leading:
:"Although leaders may assume considerable discretion in the manner of marking time, modest downward and upward strokes are much to be preferred to "winding", "grabbing", and "snatching" methods.
The teachers at a major
singing schoolfor Sacred Harp, Camp Fasola, likewise urge their students not to engage in flamboyant leading (see External Links, below). The prohibition on flamboyant leading evidently has a very long history; the 1869 edition of "The Sacred Harp" recommended that in leading "all affectation be banished". [Cobb, p. 12]
Such prohibitions have never been entirely successful, and actual singings in fact involve a great variety of less-discreet leading styles. These include dramatic hand motions, two-handed leading (that is, from memory without the book), [Cobb, p. 13] and various forms of whole-body movement. Strolling around the central area is not uncommon, particularly when the leader is bringing in the various entrances of a
fuging tunefrom each section in succession. [Cobb, p. 12.]
Although the privilege of leading is currently extended by and large to anyone who wishes to lead, this was not always so. Around the turn of the 20th century, leading was normally assigned to a small group of experienced singers. [Cobb, p. 142. Miller (2002, 162) reprints the full list of leaders for 1880 meeting of the
Chattahoochee Musical Convention; they number 20 in total, hence only five per day.] This earlier practice explains the traditional terminology whereby a turn of leading is called a "lesson" and the group of singers a "class." Earlier leaders, being experts who wielded authority, would have been in a position actually to instruct the group, as respected senior leaders will sometimes do even today.
Leading by women
Earlier leading differed from the present day in that women were not allowed to serve. According to the web site of the Sacred Harp Musical Heritage Association, ["fasola.org"; the specific page is [http://fasola.org/introduction/timeline.html] .] the extension of leading to women took place gradually, through the generation that followed the introduction of new editions early in the twentieth century, hence roughly in the historical period when women in America won the right to vote.
*Carlton, David (2003) "To the Land I Am Bound: A Journey Into Sacred Harp," "Southern Cultures" 9: 49-66.
*Cobb, Buell E. (1978) "The Sacred Harp: A Tradition and its Music". Athens: University of Georgia Press.
*"The Sacred Harp, 1991 Edition". Carrollton, Georgia: Sacred Harp Publishing Company.
*Miller, Kiri, ed. (2002) "The Chattahoochee Musical Convention, 1852-2002: A Sacred Harp Historical Sourcebook". Carrollton, Georgia: The Sacred Harp Museum.
*Miller, Kiri (2004) "First Sing the Notes": Oral and Written Traditions in Sacred Harp Transmission. "American Music" 22:475-501.
* [http://fasola.org/minutes/search/?q=leading+camp+fasola&n=2367 Instruction on leading] from three teachers (David Ivey, Jeff and Shelbie Sheppard) at the 2006
Camp Fasola(Sacred Harp minutes)
* [http://fasola.org/minutes/search/?q=leading+camp+fasola&n=1690 Similar material] from the 2003 camp.
* [http://groups.google.com/group/fasola-questions/browse_thread/thread/878ccb2fdb0ddcc0 Sacred Harp leader Karen Willard] addresses a novice's query, drawing a connection between the prohibition on flamboyant leading and the values of the traditional singing community. (Willard is a co-editor of the Cooper edition.)
* [http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/huntsville/arranging.html The priorities of an arranging committee] , given by traditional singer Linton Ballinger, and illustrating the complexity of their task. From the web site of Prof. David Warren Steel.
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