Genetic epidemiology

Genetic epidemiology

Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations, and the interplay of such genetic factors with environmental factors. In slightly more formal language, genetic epidemiology was defined by Morton as "a science which deals with the etiology, distribution, and control of disease in groups of relatives and with inherited causes of disease in populations". [cite book | last=Morton |first= N. E. |year=1982 | title=Outline of Genetic Epidemiology |publisher=Karger| city= New York| isbn=380552269X ] It is closely allied to both molecular epidemiology and statistical genetics, but these overlapping fields each have distinct emphases, societies and journals.

Traditionally, the study of the role of genetic in disease progresses through the following study designs, each answering a slightly different question: [cite web |url= |title=Introduction to Genetic Epidemiology] | author= M. Tevfik Dorak | date=2008-03-03| accessdate=2008-03-04]

* Familial aggregation studies: Is there a genetic component to the disease, and what are the relative contributions of genes and environment?
* Segregation studies: What is the pattern of inheritance of the disease (e.g. dominant or recessive)?
* Linkage studies: On which part of which chromosome is the disease gene located?
* Association studies: Which allele of which gene is associated with the disease?

This traditional approach has proved highly successful in identifying monogenic disorders and locating the genes responsible.

More recently, the scope of genetic epidemiology has expanded to include common diseases for which many genes each play make a smaller contribution (polygenic, multifactorial or multigenic disorders). This has developed rapidly in the first decade of the 21st century following completion of the Human Genome Project, as advances in genotyping technology and associated reductions in cost has made it feasible to conduct large-scale genome-wide association studies that genotype many thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms in thousands of individuals. These have lead to the discovery of many genetic polymorphisms that influence the risk of developing many common diseases.


Further reading

*cite book
author = Khoury, M.J.
coauthors = Beaty, T.H.; Cohen, B.H.
year = 1993
title = Fundamentals of genetic epidemiology
publisher = Oxford University Press | city=New York
isbn = 0195052889

*citation| title=Human Genome Epidemiology: A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease | editor1-first=Muin J. | editor1-last=Khoury | editor2-first=Julian| editor2-last=Little | editor3-first=Wylie |editor3-last=Burke| publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2003 | isbn = 978-0-19-514674-5 | url=
*cite book | doi=10.1002/0470011815.b2a05034 | chapter=Genetic Epidemiology | title=Encyclopedia of Biostatistics |publisher=Wiley Interscience| first=M. A. | last=Spence | year=2005
*cite book
last= Thomas | first=D.C.
year = 2004
title = Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology
publisher = Oxford University Press
isbn=019515939X | url=

External links

* [ "Genetic Epidemiology" (journal)]
* [ International Genetic Epidemiology Society]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Genetic epidemiology (journal) — Infobox Journal title=Genetic epidemiology discipline=Medicine abbreviation= publisher= country= frequency=Bimonthly [ [ bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER Word=Epidemiology Reuters Master Journal List]… …   Wikipedia

  • Genetic linkage — is the tendency of certain loci or alleles to be inherited together. Genetic loci that are physically close to one another on the same chromosome tend to stay together during meiosis, and are thus genetically linked. Contents 1 Background 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Genetic association — is the occurrence, more often than can be readily explained by chance, of two or more traits in a population of individuals, of which at least one trait is known to be genetic. Studies of genetic association aim to test whether single locus… …   Wikipedia

  • Epidemiology — For the Community episode, see Epidemiology (Community). Epidemiology is the study of health event, health characteristic, or health determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform… …   Wikipedia

  • Epidemiology of autism — The epidemiology of autism is the study of factors affecting autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most recent reviews estimate a prevalence of one to two cases per 1,000 people for autism, and about six per 1,000 for ASD; because of inadequate data,… …   Wikipedia

  • Genetic disorder — For a non technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. Genetic disorder Classification and external resources MeSH D030342 A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in genes or …   Wikipedia

  • Epidemiology of suicide — It is probable that the incidence of suicide is widely under reported due to both religious and social pressures, and possibly completely unreported in some areas. Nevertheless, from the known suicides, certain trends are apparent. However, since …   Wikipedia

  • Epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer — Epidemiological risk factors for a disease can provide important clues as to the etiology, or cause, of a disease. The first work on the epidemiology and etiology of breast cancer was done by Janet Lane Claypon, who published a comparative study… …   Wikipedia

  • epidemiology — The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems. [G. epidemios, epidemic, + logos, study] clinical e. the field concerned… …   Medical dictionary

  • Molecular epidemiology — is a branch of medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”