- German Jamaican
A German Jamaican is a Jamaican of German Descent.
German Immigration To Jamaica
Known as bountied European
immigration, this practice commenced in May 1834 with the arrival of 64 Germansafter a 108-day journey from the town of Bremen. They were recruited by the brother of Mr. Solomon Myers, the German Jewish owner of a coffee estate in St. George's (now part of Portland). Myers received financial support from the Jamaican Assembly to cover shipping costs and help settle his first group near Buff Bay in a district that became known as Bremen Valley. It failed miserably. Many of the 25 men, 18 women and 21 children left, some moving on to Clarendon to join the police. So Myers tried a second time, importing 506 Germans again from Bremen with the Assembly's support. After 37 days, they arrived in Port Royal in December 1834. Myers kept 20 for himself and divided the remainder among planters from St. Ann's Bay, Montego Bay, Manchester, St. Elizabethand Clarendon. At this time, other planters began to import Europeans from England, Scotlandand Ireland. Like the Germans, many did not stay in agricultural work. They moved into domestic service and left the interior for towns.
By the end of 1834, the Assembly appointed a recruiter, a Prussian named William Lemonius. He was charged with organizing the importation of German and English labourers and work towards the establishment of a colonial government project involving three European Townships in the island's interior. In 1835 the third wave of Germans arrived, again from Bremen. Of this 532, almost half were sent to form the Cornwall township of Seaford Town, the first of three townships slated for settlement, even though only 17 of the cottages slated to be ready for them on arrival were completed. More joined them in 1836 from the second lot organized by Lemonius. The other two townships were earmarked for Middlesex in St. Ann, near to the St. Mary border and Altamont on the Portland coast.
The township plan was to be regulated by the Immigration Act of 1836 which stipulated the terms and conditions of indentureship. These included the importer's being responsible for shipping, food and other needs of the immigrants, the fact that on completion of 6 months of residence, the importer would receive £12 for all persons 12 years or older and £8 for those under 12 and that all immigrants would be exempt from taxation whiles during their period of indenture. In 1840 the Act increased the amount of financial assistance given to the planters (which was often used to cover shipping costs) and limited the indentureship to a period of one year. By 1841, however, the European Immigration policy was deemed a failure. The Germans had failed to entice the ex-slaves to perform harder. In fact, they were envious of the ex-slaves' access to their own provision grounds and tended to work less industriously as a result.
By 1842 the authority to appoint recruiting agents in Europe had ended, penalties were instated against those who employed immigrants in unhealthy situations and the government's expenditure on immigration was limited to £20,000 a year, a reduction of £30,000 from 1840.The Government had begun to look elsewhere in earnest for sources of labour, namely China and India.
Seaford Town, named after Lord Seaford, is found in the Westmoreland Hills some 25 miles from Montego Bay. The first set of immigrants to settle in Seaford Town arrived in the middle of December 1835. Some 250 men, women and children landed first in Rio Bueno, before going on to Reading and then walking inland to Seaford Town. The original plan was that on arrival they would occupy cottages built for them and be paid small weekly allowances until they began to cultivate provisions successfully. Then they were to be given free title to their lots. Instead, they had to build most of their own cottages and many were expected to work an average of 72 hours while subsisting on meagre rations such as 4 lbs of cornmeal, 1 lb of beef, 4 lbs of flour and 3 lb of salt fish. Thirty-four of them died in the first 2 weeks. As stipulated in the Immigration Act, rations were supposed to include 10 lb of cornmeal, 2 lb of beef, 6 lb of flour and 2 lb of salt fish with different wages given depending on the amount of food provided.
By the end of September 1838 the population had halved to 156 as a result of tropical diseases, overwork and some migration to America, based largely on the returns from sales of ginger. To survive these immigrants stuck together and learned how to plant banana, plantains, ginger, cocoa, coffee and cassava. During this period, Apprenticeship ended and some ex-slaves moved into nearby areas. A competitive relationship between them and the Germans grew, based largely on suspicion from both sides. This caused the Germans to band even more closely together.
Soon, Germans released from other indentures began to arrive and a schoolmaster, Johnnes Bierbusse, emerged as his fellow immigrants' un-official representative. A catechist also, Bierbusse could baptize but he could not ad-minister sacraments. Since the majority of the first arrivals to Seaford Town were Roman Catholic, this presented a major cause of concern.
The first land titles were handed out in 1850 three acres to each member of a household. The town's first priest arrived in the 1870s, when the population had grown to close to 500. An Austrian, Father Tauer, established a permanent mission and built a stone church. Destroyed by a hurricane in 1912, it has since been rebuilt.
Seaford Town was not the only place Germans settled and so it is not the only place where light-eyed and blond Jamaicans can be found. There is a German Town in Trelawny and over the years, Germans were also found in Alexandria, Christiana, Brown's Town, Stewart Town and Ulster Spring. These communities seemed to have had greater contact with neighbouring towns than Seaford Town which is probably why Seaford Town tends to be regarded as having the strongest German retentions and is thus often referred to as if it is the only German town. Indeed, the terms Seaford Town and "German Town" seem to be used interchangeably. Of course, there are also places, often found in the island's hillier sections, whose names reflect German influence such as Manhertz Gap, Charlotten-burgh, Mount Holstein, Bremen Valley, New Brunswick and Hessen Castle, among others.
Today some 160 people of German descent remain in Seaford Town, but family names like Dusterdick, Eisinger, Sleifer, Volker and Zwinkman, present 100 years ago, have disappeared. Inbreeding, along with some integration with Jamaicans of African and Asian descent occurred leading to the creation of "Germaicans," as stated by one resident of Seaford Town.
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