- Emergency medical technician - intermediate
Emergency Medical Technician-Intermediate (EMT-I) is a midlevel provider of prehospital emergency medical provider in the United States. The EMT-I is not intended to deliver definitive medical care, but rather to augment prehospital critical care and provide rapid on-scene treatment. EMT-Is are most commonly employed delivering prehospital emergency care in ambulances, working in conjunction with
EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics. As a midlevel provider of prehospital emergency medical care, the EMT-Intermediate is typically authorized to provide more advanced medical treatment than the EMT-Basicand is typically authorized to provide advanced life support.
Education and Training
EMT-I/85 is a level of training that will typically allow several more invasive procedures than are allowed at the basic level, including IV therapy, the use of multi-lumen airway devices (even endotracheal intubation in some states), and provides for enhanced assessment skills. The EMT-I/85 is typically allowed only the same medications an EMT-B is allowed to use (these being oxygen administration, oral glucose, activated charcoal, epinephrine auto-injectors (Epi-Pens), nitroglycerine, and Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIs), though in many states administration of 5 and 50% dextrose in water is also allowed (commonly referred to as D5W and D50 respectively)). Protocols for medications vary by state. For example, in New Hampshire, an EMT-I is allowed to administer Epinephrine 1:1000 and 1:10,000, Narcan, Atropine, Thiamine, nebulized Albuterol and other medications in addition to the above listed medications.
The EMT-I/99 level is the closest level of certification to Paramedic, and allows many techniques not available to the EMT-I/85 or below. Some of these techniques include needle-decompression of
tension pneumothorax, endotracheal intubation, nasogastric tubes, use of cardiac event monitors/ ECGs, and medication administration to control certain cardiac Arrhythmias.
scope of practiceby state
In addition to the United States Department of Transportation established standards, some states issue licenses for more specialized levels of training. Other states simply use different names for the above.
Alaskahas an EMT-II, which is very similar to the I/85 standard, and the EMT-III, which is closer to the I/99 standard; interestingly a sponsoring physician can broaden the scope of an EMT-III beyond state-defined protocols by providing additional training and quality control measures. This means that additional drugs and procedures (including wound suturing) can be accomplished by an appropriately trained EMT-III. The EMT-III program is a short upgrade program, and does not generally receive reciprocity with other states.Fact|date=April 2008 Californiauses an EMT-I or "EMT-One" Roman numeral designation which is equivalent to the National EMT-Basic; this should not be confused with the EMT-Intermediate (hereafter EMT-I).Fact|date=April 2008 IowaEMT-Basics can administer Epi-pen per protocol, insert a Combi-Tube, and can set-up and maintain an IV that is non-medicated as well as all other basic skills. (Not establish an IV.) EMT-Intermediates can establish an IV as well as do all of the EMT-Basic skills. An Iowa Paramedic is a NREMT-Intermediate/99 and is not the highest level of care in Iowa. This allows them to insert ET Tubes, Needle Decompression, Manual Defib., and administer medication. The Iowa Paramedic Specialist is the NREMT-Paramedic. Iowa also has a Critical Care endorsement for Paramedic Specialists.Fact|date=April 2008 Michiganrecognizes the DOT levels of EMT-B, EMT-I/85, and EMT-P, however they refer to an EMT-I/85 as an EMT-S (Specialist). However, since standards for EMT-Basic are nearing the EMT-Paramedic level, the EMT-Specialist is slowly being phased out.Fact|date=April 2008
New York State has an
AEMT-CC(Advanced EMT - Critical Care) certification, which is unique to New York, but almost identical in curriculum to the national standard EMT-Intermediate/99. Part of the reason why New York possesses this level is that it also has an AEMT-I (Advanced EMT - Intermediate) certification which is at the same level as the national standard for EMT-I/85. However, no advanced EMT certifications are recognized in New York City. One is either an EMT-B or a Paramedic.Fact|date=April 2008 Oklahomarecognized a similar level, called EMT-Cardiac, until recently; however, that level has been phased out and EMTs certified in Oklahoma at that level have since been trained and certified to the paramediclevel or downgraded to EMT-I.Fact|date=April 2008
Rhode Island's first-level ALS providers is EMT-Cardiac, which is unique to Rhode Island and Virginia (Virginia has recently phased out the Cardiac Tech program). The EMT-C is a certification between the EMT-I and EMT-P, allowing the use of more cardiac drugs than the EMT-I, but fewer than the EMT-P. The time and cost of an EMT-C program is generally less than 1/3 that of an EMT-P program, and is much more popular. EMT-C or higher licensure is generally required by Rhode Island fire departments, who provide Emergency Medical Services in the majority of the state.Fact|date=April 2008
TennesseeEMTs are licensed at either the EMT-IV (Intravenous Therapy) Level or the EMT-Paramedic Level. EMT-IVs are trained to the NREMT-B standard in accordance with DOT regulations, as well as receive additional training in advanced airway management, administration of Epinephrine 1:1000 in Anaphylaxis, administration of nebulized and aerosolized Beta-2 Agonists such as Xopenex and Albuterol, administration of D50W and D25W, IV Therapy and Access, and trauma life support including the use of MAST Trousers. EMT-IVs can also administer nitroglycerine and aspirin in the event of cardiac emergencies, and can give Glucagon. EMT-IVs can also administer the Mark 1 Autoinjector kit for Organophospate poisoning and suspected nerve gas exposure. The State of TN Board of EMS is currently evaluating allowing EMT-IVs to administer NARCAN and Nitrous Oxide, as well. The Board is also considering going to an Emergency Medical Responder, EMT-B, EMT-Advanced, and EMT-P format and eliminating the EMT-IV rank. [http://health.state.tn.us/Downloads/EMS032608.pdf TN Dept of Health Division of EMS Board Meeting(March 2008) pg 25-27] Vermont's first level of ALS provider is the EMT-I '03, which is unique to the state. EMT-I '03's have an expanded scope of practice which falls above an EMT-I/85 but below an EMT-I/99. In addition to providing IV therapy EMT-I '03's are allowed to administer Albuterol, ASA (Aspirin), D50, Epinephrine (1:1000), Glucagon, Naloxone (Narcan), Nitro and Thiamine in addition to EMT-B level meds. Medical Directors of each district retain the rights to modify the State Protocols in their districts.Fact|date=April 2008
Virginia, the first level of ALS is EMT-Enhanced (previously Shock Trauma), which is unique to Virginia. EMT-Enhanced can start IV lines, perform endotracheal intubation, and administer some medications such as D50, glucagon, albuterol/atrovent, epinephrine and in some cases narcotics. The next level of ALS is EMT-Intermediate, which is essentially equivalent to the I/99 level of certification and in most counties, operate under the same protocols as EMT-Paramedics. (Virginia has recently phased out its Cardiac Tech program and replaced it with Intermediate.)Fact|date=April 2008
Washington state: When it comes to EMT-Bs Washington, protocols are similar to Iowa's. EMT-Basics can administer Epi-pen per protocol, insert a Combi-Tube, and can set-up and maintain an IV that is non-medicated as well as all other basic skills. (Not establish an IV.) EMT-Intermediates can establish an IV as well as do all of the EMT-Basic skills.
Wisconsinoffers an EMT-IV-Technician certification for the EMT-Basic, allowing them to start basic IV lines, treat for hypovolemic shock, administer Narcan, D5, and a limited number of other medications. This level of training is often used in non-urban areas where hospitals may be sparse and Advanced Life Support intercepts or aero-medical transports can take a great deal of time. Additionally, some private ambulance companies employ EMT-IV Technicians for interfacility transports which only require IV therapy and do not necessitate the specialized advanced care of a paramedic, EMT-I, RN or MD.Fact|date=April 2008
References and Notes
Emergency medical responder levels by state
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians
National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians
Emergency Medical Services in the United States
Wilderness emergency medical technician
* [http://www.nremt.org National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians]
* [http://www.naemt.org National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians]
* [http://www.nemsms.org National EMS Memorial Service]
* [http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/menuitem.2a0771e91315babbbf30811060008a0c/ National Highway Traffic Safety Agency, Office of Emergency Medical Services]
* [http://firstaid.about.com/od/emergencymedicalservices/qt/06_EMTBvsP.htm The Difference Between an EMT and a Paramedic]
* [http://www.emtcity.com EMT City, large community for EMTs and Paramedics]
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