Penang Hill

Penang Hill

Infobox Mountain
Name = Penang Hill
Bukit Bendera
Photo = view_from_penang_hill.jpg
Caption = View from the top of Penang Hill.
Elevation = 735 metres (2,450 ft)
Location = Peninsular Malaysia
Range =
Prominence =
Coordinates =
Topographic

Type =
Age =
First ascent =
Easiest route =

Penang Hill is a hill resort comprising a group of peaks, the major hill system of Penang, Malaysia. It is located six kilometers from the city centre of George Town. It stands out prominently from the lowlands as a hilly and forested area. Penang Hill is also known by the Malay name "Bukit Bendera", which refers to Flagstaff Hill, the most developed peak.

Geography

Topography

Penang Hill is mainly hilly granitic mass. The hill system is higher towards the northern part with its highest point at Western Hill, at an elevation of 833 m (2,723 ft) above sea level. Other than Western Hill, there are a number of peaks in the region, such as Bukit Laksamana, Tiger Hill, Flagstaff Hill and Government Hill. Flagstaff Hill is 735 m (2,450 ft) above sea level. A number of small rivers and streams originated from the region. Sungai Pinang is the largest of the rivers, and it starts from a number of tributaries in the area.

Land use

Because Penang Hill has a cooler environment, it has been a popular holiday retreat. A number of bungalows were built around Flagstaff Hill. The northern part of the Hills are not well developed. Government Hill, Bukit Timah and others are designated water catchment areas and no development is permitted.

Some recreational potential exists at the upper reaches of the river where the water is relatively clean. In a number of cases, sudden changes in ground level have resulted in a series of small waterfalls and rapids, where bathing, dipping and picknicking are popular.

The lower terrain of the Hills is used mainly for agricultural and residential purposes.

Accessibility

The most convenient way up to Penang Hill is by means of the Penang Hill Railway, a funicular railway from Air Itam to the top of Flagstaff Hill. Construction of the railway took place between 1906 to 1923, at a cost of 1.5 million Straits dollars. The railway was opened to the public on October 21, 1923. The 2,007 m (1 mile 435 yard) journey takes about half an hour and the train may stop at intermediate stations upon request.

Alternatively, there is a 5.1 km (3.17 mile) tarred road known popularly as the "jeep track". It is open only to the vehicles of hill residents. The "jeep track" is also used by off-road motorcycle enthusiast to traverse up the steep terrain. It is a popular hiking route. It begins at the quarry at the entrance of the Penang Botanic Gardens and it takes a two or three hour leisurely hike to reach the top. Some of the more famous pit stops at the mountain are 52 and 84. At these pit stops, the view of island is visible to hikers which are able to get some water and tea prepared by locals stationed on the hill. Eighty Four is the last pit stop before the top of Penang Hill -- approximately forty five more minutes from 84.

Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, more commonly known as Summit Road, leads from the top station to the western part of the hill right towards Western and Tiger Hill.

The eastern face of Penang Hill is well served by a series of roads and paths, for example, Moniot Road, Viaduct Road, and Tunnel Road. Moniot Road is named after a Frenchman, Michael Jules Moniot who surveyed it between 1846 and 1855. Moniot Road has been declared a Heritage Trail in 1995 by the Governor of Penang.

A system of bridle paths forms a picturesque labyrinth of walks connecting the different bungalows. Indian penal servitude prisoners shipped from Bencoolen, Sumatra to Penang during the second half of the 19th century built these by-paths.

Numerous trekking trails lead from various starting points in the lowlands to Penang Hill. The more popular trails include the Moongate Trail, trail from Air Itam Dam to Tiger Hill, trail from Hye Keat Estate and trail from the Municipal Park (formerly Youth Park). Some of the trails are used by farmers to transport produces to the markets of Balik Pulau and Air Itam.

Climate

The most important feature of Penang Hill is the cooler climate. The core summit area has an average temperature ranging from 20° to 27°C. The mean minimum temperature is consistently below 21°C. The hottest months are between December and April while the coolest months are between June and October.

Plant and Animal Life

Flora

The most common forest type found on Penang Hill is the hill dipterocarp forest. Growing at higher altitudes are some of the submontane oak-laurel as well as coniferous trees. The Tree fern which is normally associated with higher elevations are also found growing here.

Penang Hill is scientifically important as a type site of many Malaysian plant species. In the past, botanists came here to collect plants for herbaria around the world. It is an area rich in biodiversity and has a great number of endemic species, some of which are so rare that their existence is endangered.

The rare and endangered species include the parasitic plant "Exorhopalia ruficeps", which grows in the shady and damp undergrowth. The Penang slipper orchid is fast becoming over-collected and disappearing. The endangered witch hazel "Maingaya malayana" was rediscovered years ago and has since been propagated.

Fauna

Large mammals are not found in Penang Hills. Wild boars, small and medium sized mammals such as the squirrels, monkeys and tree shrews can be sighted. A number of species found in these hills are nocturnal. These include the civets, flying lemurs, flying civets and bats.

In the evenings, the characteristic calls of the cicadas and crickets are often heard. If one is discerning enough, the stick insect and leaf mantis may be found well-camoufaged among the vegetation.

Penang Hills have a rich bird fauna. Over 100 species or about 80% of the birds found on Penang Island have been recorded here. They range from the common garden species to rare deep forest inhabitants.

References

* Malaysian Nature Society, Penang Branch. Selected Nature Trails of Penang Island (ISBN 983-40170-0-6)
* Malaysian Nature Society, Penang Development Corporation (PDC) et al. Penang Hill - A Part of Our Heritage brochure

External links

* [http://www.forestexplorers.com ForestExplorers]
* [http://www.penang-vacations.com/penang-hills.html Penang Hills]


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