Valle de Bravo, Mexico State

Valle de Bravo, Mexico State

Infobox City
official_name = Valle de Bravo
native_name =
motto =



imagesize =
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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = flag|Mexico
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = flagcountry|México (state)|name=Mexico State
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
government_type =
leader_title = Municipal President
leader_name = José Martínez Doroteo (2006-2009)
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
established_title = Foundation
established_date = 1530
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 =
area_total_sq_mi =
area_land_km2 =
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area_water_km2 =
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area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
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population_as_of = 2005
population_note =
population_total = 57,390
population_density_km2 =
population_density_sq_mi =
population_metro =
population_density_metro_km2 =
population_density_metro_sq_mi =
population_urban =
population_blank1_title = Demonym
population_blank1 = Vallesano
timezone = Central Standard Time
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = Central Daylight Time
utc_offset_DST = -5
latd= 19|latm=11 |lats=33 |latNS=N
longd= 100|longm= 07|longs= 50|longEW=W
elevation_m = 1850
elevation_ft =
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 51200
website = http://www.valledebravo.com.mx
footnotes =

Valle de Bravo is a town and municipality located in Mexico State, Mexico. It is located on the shore of Lake Avándaro, approximately 145 km (95 miles) southwest of Mexico City and west of Toluca on highways 15, 134 or 1.cite book |last=Estebanez(ed) |first=Francisco |authorlink= |coauthors=Jorge Arturo Gonzalez |title=The State of Mexico |year=2002 |publisher=Ediciones Nueva Guia |location=Mexico City |isbn=968 5437 26 2 ] . It takes about 2 hours to drive from Mexico City to Valle de Bravo, making it a popular weekend getaway for affluent wealthy upper class people of the metropolis capital. The town has has several names during its history including San Francisco del Valle de Temascaltepec, Temascaltepec de indios, Villa del Valle. The original names including Temascaltepec caused confusion with the nearby "Real de Minas de Temascaltepec", now Temascaltepec, so the county was known as “El Valle” (The Valley). [cite book |last=González Carranza |first=Héctor |title=Valle de Bravo |location=Toluca México |language=Spanish |isbn=968-484-420-4 |pages=13-18 ] "de Bravo" was added later to honor Nicolás Bravo who fought at the Castle of Chapultepec during the Mexican-American War. Its glyph includes the image of a temascal in reference to its original name. cite web |url=http://www.e-local.gob.mx/work/templates/enciclo/mexico/mpios/15110a.htm |title= Enciclopedia de los Municipios de Mexico Estado de Mexico Valle de Bravo |accessdate=2008-04-10 ] The town and the surrounding area are well-known in Mexico as a tourist destination, principally because it is natural area only 2 hours away from Mexico City.

The town

The first to arrive to the area were the Matlazincas who settled mostly in the present-day communities of Santa Maria Ahuacatlán, La Peña and Otumba. Between 1474 and 1479, the Aztec chief Axayacatl conquered the region, establishing what it would be the last addition to the Aztec Empire. After the destruction of Tenochtitlan by the Spanish, campaigns to subdue this area were carried out by Andrés de Tapia and Gonzalo de Sandoval, followed by evangelization by the Dominicans and the Augustinians. Around 1530, the Franciscan friar Gregorio Jiménez founded the town as a congregation called "El Pino". Between 1607 and 1615, a Franciscan convent was established here, giving the town that grew up around it its original name of San Franciscano del Valle de Temascaltepec.

The town suffered greatly during the Mexican War of Independence due to the monarchy's attempts to repress the rebellion there. Another short-lived rebellion occurred in 1834 when Carlos Guadalupe Tepixtoco Abad proclaimed his plan to re-establish the empire of Moctezuma. However, most people considered the cause to be ridiculous and the movement quickly died out. The village gained town status in 1842 and city status in 1878. In the beginning of the 19th century, Professor G. Velázquez wrote the poem “Valle de Bravo en la poesía de Pagaza”, describing the region's beauty. The town also saw incursions by Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution.

In the 20th century, the geographic configuration of the landscape changed. In 1937, the Federal Commission on Electricity began plans for an electrical plant called Ixtapantongo, later called the “Miguel Alemán” hydroelectric system. Construction began in 1938 and ended in 1947 ending with a Villa Victoria Dam that flooded 2,900 hectares, creating the current resevior which extends all the way to the state of Michoacán. The electrical plant generates 458,775 kilowatts per hour and forms a part of the water system supplying Mexico City. The town is situated on a small plateau at the foot of several hills at the edge of this lake. As of 2005 it had a population of 22,166.cite web |url=http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/sistemas/conteo2005/localidad/iter/default.asp?s=est&c=10395 |title=Principales resultados por localidad 2005 (ITER) |accessdate=2008-03-29 ]

The town's principal economic activities center around tourism. It is a very popular location for weekend visits, especially from residents of Mexico City and Toluca. Holidays such as New Year's Eve and Semana Santa bring large numbers of visitors to the town leading to strong recommendations to arrange lodging well in advance. Other yearly events include the Festival Vallesano (March) where people participate in sporting, horseback-riging, art exhibitions and food-tasting events as well as cultural and musical performances.cite web |url=http://www.todovalle.net/ |title=Fiestas importantes en Valle de Bravo |accessdate=2008-04-10 ] However, the largest annual celebration is the cultural festival known as the Festival de las Almas (Festival of the Souls) which has occurred each of the last five years in late September or early October. The 2007 festival brought in 4.5 million pesos to the area with 8 days of festivities, 151 programmed events centered on film, dance, art exhibitions, music, literature, workshops and theater, as well as Day of the Dead altars. It has spread to include events in Apaxco, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Temascalcingo, Texcoco and Toluca. This event featured "Alan" State Dance Troupe from Ossetia Alania, Russia as well as artists from thirteen other countries. Roughly 160-170 thousand people attended the event.cite news |first=Silvia |last=Marquez |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Por quinta ocasión “Las Almas” tomarán Valle de Bravo |url=http://impulsocultura.blogia.com/2007/091602-por-quinta-ocasion-las-almas-tomaran-valle-de-bravo.php |work= |publisher=Impulso Estado de Mexico |date=16 Sept 2007 |accessdate=2008-04-11 ]

The town has a number of interesting attractions based on its colonial architecture such as:

Temple of Santa María Ahuacatlán was originally a chapel when it was started in 1864 but has been converted into a church which is still under construction.cite web |url=http://www.elclima.com.mx/valle_de_bravo.htm |title=Valle de Bravo |accessdate=2008-04-10 ] The main altar contains a Black ChristEn el altar principal se puede observar una rara imagen de un Cristo Negro, which is still worshipped. Inside the church are extremely large cavases by Phillippa, an English artist who was recently commissioned. These canvases depict the relationship between Mazahua legend and the Black Christ.

The Parish of Saint Francis of Asisi used to have two very large naves constructed by the Franciscans, one nave for the Spanish and one for the indigenous people. All that is preserved from the 17th century are the baptismal font, the holy water font and a carving of Saint Francis which is located in a vaulted niche in the present-day main nave. Other, more recent features of the church include murals and Italian oil paintings. The main bell was cast during the Mexican Revolution. The third and main nave was constructed in the 1950s in which all residents of the town participated; however, this project was not terminated until 1994.

The Casa de la Cultura (House of Culture) is located in front of the municipal dock on Lake Avandaro. Clases are given there in activities such as aerobics, music and painting to children and adults. It also hosts conferences and workshops on natural medicine as well as art expositions. The complex includes a library, a ballroom, a cafe, exhibition rooms and an auditorium. Also, the workshop of painter Ismael Ramos is found here.

The Joaquín Arcadio Pagaza Museum is dedicated to the conservation, research and spread of the region's cultural history. It features objects that were the property of Don Joaquín Arcadio Pagaza, a notable person here. It displays paintings and sculpture from local, national and international artists. It also supports literature by sponsoring conferences, films, theatre and other events. It also offers courses and workshops in fine arts, music and literature as well as a library.

The Municipal Boardwalk and Dock, on the edge of Lake Avandaro, is the main attraction in the town. There are a number of restaurants on the boardwalk and some that float alongside the dock. On weekends, artists display and sell there work here. Boats for excursions on the lake can be rented here as well as horses.It’s an artificial lake where you can practice water sports and enjoy trips on a yacht or on a boat. On the banks of this river there are more than 42 nautical clubs. It is great for navigation, sailing, and water-skiing.

The Jardín Central (Central Garden) is located on the side of the Parish of San Francisco. There is live music at the bandstand on Sunday afternoons and street food such as corn, campechanas, tacos, pambazos and traditional ice cream for sale. A bust of Nicolás Bravo, for whom the town was named also stands in this location.

At Valle de Bravo you can enjoy a safe night life but also you can enjoy sunny days and at night you can go to many bars and restaurants located in downtown. You can find bars like Camelia, Naha, Enebro, La Escala, Bar de los Artistas, La Casona Terraza Bar. Clubs like Mango, Pachanga, Piel Seca, El Relampago and Santo y Seña but the two most attractive are located in the middle of the lake of Valle de Bravo. cite web |url=http://www.valledebravo.gob.mx/home.html |title=Qué visitar, Información Turística |accessdate=2007-10-19 |author=Govt of Valle de Bravo]

Valle de Bravo was named a "As it mentioned before, Valle de Bravo has a population of more than 50000 people. The mortality, in this town, is first, due to homicides and in a second place by alcoholismFact">date=February 2008. However, the mortality rate has decreased over the last decadeFact|date=February 2008. Migration is another factor determinant in the demographic of Valle de Bravo, because the people leave their origins in order to find better jobsFact|date=February 2008. 27,675 is the amount of people who can read and write.cite web |author=INEGI |url=http://galileo.inegi.gob.mx/website/mexico/viewer.htm?bsqTable=77&bsqField=CVEMUN&bsqStr=15110&TName=MGM&seccionB=mdm |title=Mapa digital de México |publisher=National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing |Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática |accessdate=2008-01-28 es icon]

Valle de Bravo’s weather is mild- humid. It rains during summer: it starts in June and ends in September. The warmest months are: May, June, July and August. The average temperature is 17.5 °C (63.50 °F). The minimum temperature is 1.3°C (34.34°F) and the maximum is 32°C (89.60°F). [cite book |last=H. Ayuntamiento de Valle de Bravo |title=Plan de desarrollo municipal de Valle de Bravo |year=200 |publisher=H. Ayuntamiento de Valle de Bravo |location=Valle de Bravo, Mexico |language=Spanish |pages=1.1 ]

The municipality

As municipal seat, the town of Valle de Bravo has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: San Mateo Acatitlán, El Aguacate, Los Álamos, Calderones, La Candelaria, El Castellano, El Cerrillo (San José el Cerrillo), La Compañía (Cerro Colorado), Cerro Gordo, Colorines, Loma Bonita, La Compañía (Tres Espigas), Cuadrilla de Dolores, Rancho Espinos, El Fresno (El Fresno la Compañía), Godínez Tehuastepec, La Laguna, Loma de Chihuahua, Loma de Rodríguez, El Manzano, Mesa de Jaimes, Mesa de Dolores (Mesa de Dolores 2a. Secc.), Los Pelillos, Peña Blanca, Los Pozos (Pinar de Osorios), Santa María Pipioltepec (Pipioltepec), San José Potrerillos (Potrerillos), Rincón de Estradas, San Antonio, San Gabriel Ixtla, San Gaspar, San Juan Atezcapan, San Nicolás Tolentino, San Ramón, San Simón el Alto, Santa Magdalena Tiloxtoc, Santa Rosa, Santa Teresa Tiloxtoc, Los Saucos, Tenantongo, La Volanta, Casas Viejas, Mesa Rica (La Finca), Mesa de Palomas, Atesquelites (Tres Quelites), La Boquilla (Cerro el Cualtenco la Boquilla), El Durazno, La Mecedora, Escalerillas, Tehuastepec (San José Tehuastepec), Tierra Grande (La Loma), El Arco, Barrio de Guadalupe, Las Joyas, Mata Redonda (Paso Hondo), Mesa de Dolores 1a. Secc. (Mesa del Rayo), La Palma, Piedra del Molino, Rancho Avándaro Country Club, El Aguacate (El Aserradero), Agua Fría, La Huerta San Agustín, Tres Puentes, Colonia Rincón Villa del Valle, Colonia Valle Escondido, Monte Alto, Las Ahujas, El Trompillo, Gallinas Blancas, Barranca Fresca, Santo Tomás el Pedregal, Los Tizates, as well as about 40 unnamed settlements. The total 2005 population of the municipality was 52,902.

Valle de Bravo became a municipality in 1852. It borders with the municipalities of Donato Guerra, Temascaltepec, Amanalco, Ixtapan del Oro, Santo Tomás de los Plátanos and Otzoloapan, with a territorial area of 421.95 km2. This municipality belongs to the 7th Region of Mexico State. The counties Donato Guerra, Ixtapan del Oro, Santo Tomás de los Plátanos, Otzoloapan, and Zacazonapan also belong to this Region.

The municipality is surrounded by mountain ranges and other elevated areas covering about 50% of the total area and include the Sierra de Temascaltepec, Sierra de Tenayac, Sierra de Valle de Bravos as wells as the hills that roll around the mountain ranges. These elevations include a number of small volcanoes such as the "Cerro Gordo". 30% of the area is semi-flat with only 20% of the surface being plains. The main river of the area is the Río Balsas, whose system includes the tributaries of El Salto, Barranca Honda, Tiloxtoc rivers.

There are unexplored archeological ruins at a site called La Peña. Two kilometers outside of the town of Valle de Bravo is the residential community of Avándaro which is filled with weekend and vacation homes due to the surrounding forests of poplars, ash trees, madrones, pines, oyameles and torch pines. The area is also home to waterfalls such as the "Velo de Novia" (Bride's Veil) which are formed when the El Molino River is filled during the rainy season.

Outside of the town of Valle de Bravo, agriculture is still intensively practiced growing crops like corn, beans, potatoes, peas, fava biena, tomatoes onions and other vegetable and some other grains. Most crops are produced for autoconsumption but some, like potatoes and peas are grown for commercial purposes. Some livestock is also raised here, but it is nearly all for autoconsumption. There is also some industrial production, mainly of ceramics, furniture and construction materials. Aside from the tourism business generated by the municipal seat, the reserviors, forests and mountains of the area attract people interested in biking, hang-gliding, sailing, water-skiing, hiking, rock climbing, horseback riding, and recreational vehicles (ATVs and dirt bikes). Valle de Bravo attracts more than 3,751,822 personas annually, who contribute more than 2,617 million pesos annually to the municipality's economy, making it the key sector to municipal development. 60% of the municipality's jobs are generated through tourism. cite web |url=http://www.edomexico.gob.mx/valle%20de%20bravo/htm/turismo.htm |title=H. Ayuntamiento de Valle de Bravo Direccion de Turismo |accessdate= 2008-04-10 ]

Culturally it is a place of transition of different cultures like: náhuatl, matlatzinca and purépecha. Languages that can be still listened in markets or in some towns.It is located southwest the city of Toluca in the State of Mexico. [ [http://www.todovalle.net Valle de Bravo México ] ]

Valle de Bravo still has indigenous peopleFact|date=February 2008. The predominant indigenous language is Mazahua (396 habitants)Fact|date=February 2008. The number of indigenous people has been reduced due to urbanizationFact|date=February 2008. Indigenous languages that predominate are Mazateca, Mixtec, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Zapotec, Tarahumara, and Tepehua TotonacaFact|date=February 2008.

Most of the people living there profess Catholicism, but there are also evangelical or Protestant people.cite web |url=http://www.estadodemexico.com.mx/portal/valledebravo/index.php?id=5 |author=Estado de México |title=Estado de México-Valle de Bravo |accessdate=2008-01-28 es icon]

References

* [http://www.valledebravorenta.com/ Where to stay in Valle de Bravo]


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