Heteroduplex

Heteroduplex

A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid originated through the genetic recombination of single complementary strands derived from different sources, such as from different homologous chromosomes or even from different organisms. One such example is the heteroduplex DNA strand formed in hybridization processes, usually for biochemistry-based phylogenetical analyses. Another example is the heteroduplexes formed when non-natural analogs of nucleic acids are used to bind with nucleic acids; these heteroduplexes result from performing antisense techniques using single-stranded peptide nucleic acid, 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate or Morpholino oligos to bind with RNA.

In meiosis, the process of crossing-over occurs between non-sister chromatids, which results in new allelic combinations of a population. In crossing-over, a Spo11 enzyme makes staggered nicks in a pair of sister chromatid strands (in a tetrad organization of prophase). The enzyme trims back the 5' ends of the strand and a protein complex binds to the 3' single-stranded ends. Rad51 protein is recruited and binds in a protein complex to search for a complementary sequence analogous to double-strand-break repair. The filament searches for the homologous chromosome, strand invasion occurs where the new chromosome forms a D-loop over the bottom sister chromatid, then the ends are annealed. This process can yield double Holliday Junctions that when cut in a transversal pattern by endonucleases form 2 heteroduplex strand products.

Heteroduplex DNA is also a source of small RNAs (smRNAs), causing post-transcriptional gene silencing.


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  • Heteroduplex — mit Schleifen. Unter Heteroduplex versteht man ein doppelsträngiges (duplex, lat. doppelt) Nukleinsäuremolekül, das aus Einzelsträngen unterschiedlicher (héteros, griech. der andere) Herkunft zusammengesetzt ist. Zusammengehalten werden die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • heteroduplex — heteroduplex. См. гетеродуплекс. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • heterodúplex — (en genética molecular) molécula de ADN en la que las dos cadenas derivan de individuos diferentes, con el resultado de que algunos pares de bases o bloques de bases no se pueden emparejar. Diccionario Mosby Medicina, Enfermería y Ciencias de la… …   Diccionario médico

  • heteroduplex — A double stranded DNA molecule or DNA RNA hybrid, where each strand is of a different origin. Where the two DNAs differ significantly in sequence, single stranded regions will be revealed when the heteroduplex is observed under the electron… …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • heteroduplex — ˌ noun Etymology: heter + duplex : a nucleic acid molecule (as DNA) composed of two chains with each derived from a different parent molecule • heteroduplex adjective * * * heteroduˈplex adjective (heteroduplex DNA laboratory made double stranded …   Useful english dictionary

  • heteroduplex — noun Date: 1962 a nucleic acid molecule (as DNA) composed of two chains with each derived from a different parent molecule • heteroduplex adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • heteroduplex — 1. A DNA molecule, the two constitutive strands of which derive from distinct sources and hence are likely to be somewhat mismatched. 2. A DNA RNA hybrid. [hetero + L. duplex, two fold] * * * het·ero·du·plex .het ə rō d(y)ü .pleks n a nucleic… …   Medical dictionary

  • heteroduplex — heterodupleksas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Dvigrandė DNR molekulė, sudaryta iš dviejų priešingų krypčių dešiniojo sukimo spiralių polinukleotidinių grandinių, kurios gautos iš dviejų skirtingų šaltinių ir todėl nėra visiškai… …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • heteroduplex analysis — The use of the electrophoretic mobility of heteroduplex DNA to estimate the degree of non homology between the sequences of the two strands. Gel mobility tends to be reduced as the amount of sequence divergence increases, because the effective… …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • heteroduplex — DNA in which the two strands are different, either of different heritable origin, formed i n vitro by annealing similar strands with some complementary sequences, or formed of mRNA and the corresponding DNA strand …   Dictionary of molecular biology

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