- Wisconsin model
The Wisconsin model of socio-economic attainment is a tool developed to measure sociological and psychological characteristics that influence an individual's
social mobility. The logistics of this model are primarily attributed to William H. Sewell, as well as his colleagues Archibald Haller and Alejandro Portes. The model receives its name based on the state, Wisconsin, in which a significant amount of research and analysis was completed. Unlike the previous research on this topic by Peter Blauand Otis Dudley Duncan, this model encompasses more than just educational and occupational factors and their effect on social mobility for American males.
Before the framework for the Wisconsin model was constructed, Peter Blau and Otis Duncan established the first model of social mobility of its kind. However, the Blau-Duncan model was made up of only five predictors. These included father's education and occupation, the individual's education and first job, and the individual's job several years later.
Sewell and his counterparts aimed to contribute to the original model of status attainment by adding predictor variables. Because the results given by the Blau-Duncan model were based heavily on "structural factors as explanatory variables," the Wisconsin model was created to account for "social-psychological factors on educational and occupational attainment," which in turn, provided more accurate prediction.
The model consisted of eight characteristics that most effectively linked socio-economic background and status attainment. These included occupational attainment, educational attainment, level of occupational aspiration, level of educational aspiration, the influence of significant others, academic performance, socioeconomic status, and mental ability.
Measured by Otis Dudley Duncan's socio-economic index of occupational status.
Achieved by assigning a point value to certain levels of education that a subject has reached. In more recent studies using this model, educational attainment was classified into four levels: no post high school education, vocational school, college attendance, and a college degree. Earlier studies only classified subjects into those who went to college and those who did not.
Level of occupational aspiration
The subject's level is calculated by again categorizing Duncan's socioeconomic index scores in association with the occupation that the subject hope to hold in the future.
Level of educational aspiration
This is classified by the education level that each subject originally indicates that they hope to secure. Once again, some recent studies have assigned point values for three levels of desired education level: not continuing education after high school, vocational school, or college. Previous studies only categorized students based on which type institution they planned on attending prior to high school graduation.
ignificant others' influence
This variable can be determined by evaluating three perceptions of the subject including: parental and teacher encouragement to attend college, as well as friends' college plans.
This value is calculated by the subject's high school class rank.
In the original study, socio-economic status was determined by a weighted combination of mother's and father's education, father's occupation, and average annual income from 1957-1960.
This variable is determined by the analysis of standardized testing. In previous studies, statewide test results for high school juniors and seniors are compared with state intelligence norms.
Effects of social psychology and stratification research on the process of status attainment
Primarily, the significant others' direct influence on the subject specifically relates to one's educational and occupational aspirations and also educational attainment. Basically, this implies that those who are constantly involved with a subject (mother, father, friend) will have a direct outcome on what type of education the subject receives.
Essentially, this implies that a person's status attainment can only be limited by one's own "perceived ability."
One's desire to attain status is an obligation for educational and occupational attainment.
Because this model organizes how status aspirations are formed and the way in which they influence "attainment-oriented behavior" the following conclusions can be drawn from the model:
"Status aspirations are complex forms of attitudes whose translation into attainment levels is affected by the context in which individuals attempt to enact them."
"Attitudes - including levels of aspiration - are formed and altered through two basic mechanisms; interpersonal influence, including reflexive adjustment of others' expectations, and including self-reflexion."
* Haller, Archibald O. and Alejandro Portes (1973). [http://www.jstor.org/view/00380407/di975408/97p03333/0?currentResult=00380407%2bdi975408%2b97p03333%2b0%2c00&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FArticleLocatorResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26ArticleTitle%3Dstatus%2Battainment%2Bprocesses%26Author%3D%26JournalTitle%3D%26ISSN%3D%26MonthSeason%3D%26Day%3D%26Year%3D%26vo%3D%26is%3D%26StartPage%3D "Status attainment processes"] . "Sociology of Education," 51-91.
* Hurst, Charles E (2007). "Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, Consequences" (Sixth Edition). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
* Sewell, William H., Archibald O. Haller and George W. Ohlendorf (1970). [http://www.jstor.org/view/00031224/di974278/97p0700i/0?currentResult=00031224%2bdi974278%2b97p0700i%2b0%2c00&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FArticleLocatorResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26ArticleTitle%3Dthe%2Beducational%2Band%2Bearly%2Boccupational%2Bstatus%2Battainment%2Bprocess%26Author%3Dsewell%26JournalTitle%3D%26ISSN%3D%26MonthSeason%3D%26Day%3D%26Year%3D%26vo%3D%26is%3D%26StartPage%3D "The educational and early occupational status attainment process: replication and revision"] . "American Sociological Review," 1014-1027.
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