Evolution of the French Empire

Evolution of the French Empire

=Extent of the French colonial empires=

Here is a list of all the countries that were part of the French colonial empires in the last 500 years, either entirely or in part, either under French sovereignty or as mandate or protectorate. When only a part of the country was under French rule, that part is listed in parentheses after the country. When there are no parentheses, it means the whole country was formerly part of any one of the French colonial empires. Countries listed are those where French sovereignty applied effectively. Areas that were only claimed, but not effectively controlled (such as Manhattan or Western Australia) are not listed.

"1st" means the country/territory was part of the first French colonial empire. "2nd" means the country/territory was part of the second French colonial empire. "Now" means this is a territory still part of the French Republic today.

The Americas

North America

*Canada (most of eastern and central Canada, see Acadia and Canada, New France) -- 1st
*Saint-Pierre and Miquelon -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*United States (entire basin of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, Great Lakes, see Louisiana (New France)) -- 1st


*Anguilla (briefly) -- 1st
*Antigua and Barbuda (briefly) -- 1st
*Dominica -- 1st
*Dominican Republic (briefly) -- 1st
*Grenada -- 1st
*Guadeloupe -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*Haiti -- 1st
*Martinique -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*Montserrat (briefly) -- 1st
*Saint Martin (northern half only) -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*Saint-Barthélemy -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*Saint Lucia -- 1st
*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -- 1st
*Sint Eustatius (briefly) -- 1st
*St Kitts and Nevis (St Kitts, but not Nevis) -- 1st
*Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago only) -- 1st
*US Virgin Islands (Saint Croix only) -- 1st

outh America

*Brazil (Rio de Janeiro briefly, and São Luís briefly) -- 1st(see France Antarctique and France Équinoxiale)
*French Guiana -- 1st, 2nd, & now


North Africa

*Morocco (89% of Morocco) -- 2nd
*Algeria -- 2nd
*Tunisia -- 2nd
*Joy -- 1st

West Africa

*Benin (as Dahomey) -- 2nd
*Burkina Faso (as Upper Volta)-- 2nd
*Côte d'Ivoire -- 2nd
*Guinea -- 2nd
*Mali (as French Sudan) -- 2nd
*Mauritania -- 2nd
*Niger -- 2nd
*Senegal -- 1st & 2nd
*Togo -- 2nd

Equatorial Africa

*Cameroon (91% of Cameroon) -- 2nd
*Central African Republic (as Oubangui-Chari)-- 2nd
*Chad -- 2nd
*Gabon -- 2nd
*Republic of the Congo ('Congo-Brazzaville') -- 2nd

Indian Ocean

*Comoros -- 2nd
*Madagascar -- 2nd
*Mauritius -- 1st
*Mayotte - 2nd & now
*Réunion -- 1st, 2nd, & now
*Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean - 2nd & now
*Seychelles -- 1st
*Tanzania (Zanzibar, briefly) -- 2nd

Red Sea

*Djibouti (as French Somaliland) -- 2nd
*Yemen (Cheikh Saïd peninsula) -- 2nd


Middle East

*Lebanon -- 2nd
*Syria -- 2nd
*Turkey (Sanjak of Alexandretta, now called Hatay Province) -- 2nd

outh Asia

**half of India (see French India)-- 1st
**only Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahé, and Chandernagore -- 2nd

East Asia

**Kwang-Chou-Wan leased territory, now the city of Zhanjiang (Guangdong province) -- 2nd
**French concessions in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tianjin, and Hankou -- 2nd
**French sphere of influence recognized by China over the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, and Guangdong -- 2nd

outh East Asia

*Cambodia - 2nd
*Laos - 2nd
*Vietnam (as Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina) - 2nd
*Eastern Thailand under French Sphere of Influence - 2nd


*Clipperton - 2nd & now
*New Caledonia -- 2nd & now
*French Polynesia -- 2nd & now
*Vanuatu (condominium shared with the British Empire) -- 2nd
*Wallis and Futuna -- 2nd & now

Antarctic Ocean

*French Southern and Antarctic Lands -- 2nd & now

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