- Automatic Deformation Monitoring System
An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. Automatic deformation monitoring systems provide a critical function for the customer. In many cases an automatic deformation monitoring system saved lives and prevented the loss of millions of dollars in infrastructure and income.
Automatic deformation monitoring system components
Automatic deformation monitoring systems include:
*Data acquisition software and data management
The consulting of the automatic deformation monitoring system covers a number of service activities that range from the first on site visit to sound out the situation and collect the requirements to the detailed project engineering with the selection of a suitable combination of measuring devices, mounting, power, communications, data center location and data acquisition software to the installation, operation and maintenance of the system.
To cover all applications an automatic deformation monitoring system must support any geodetic and geotechnical measuring device (sensor) that is required by the monitoring application.
*Geodetic measuring devices measure georeferenced displacements or movements in one, two or three dimensions. It includes the use of instruments such as
total stations, levels and global navigation satellite system receivers.
*Geotechnical measuring devices measure non-georeferenced displacements or movements and related environmental effects or conditions. It includes the use of instruments such as extensometers,
piezometers, rain gauges, thermometers, barometers, tilt meters, accelerometers, seismometers etc. Or refer to geotechnical sensors for more detail.
*Other techniques e.g. radar measuring devices.
Between measuring devices and the data acquisition software a broad range of communication alternatives are possible depending range, data rate and cost.
*Transmission cable (RS232, RS485,
*Local area network (LAN)
*Wireless LAN (WLAN)
*Mobile communication (
GSM, GPRS, UMTS)
Data acquisition software including data management
The software is the heart of the monitoring system because of its key roles in acquiring data from the attached sensors, computing meaningful values from the measurements, recording results, visualising the changes and alarming responsible persons should threshold value be exceeded. Whilst the software is the heart of the system, the operator is always the brains because they have the sufficient skills and expertise to make considered decisions on the appropriate response to the movement, e.g. independent verification though on-site inspections, re-active controls such as structural repairs and emergency responses such as shut down processes, containment processes and site evacuation.
Deformation analysis is concerned with determining of a measured displacement is
statistically significant. The analysis can be done visually through the use of time line, scatter, vector and other plots and numerically. Numerical deformation analysis is directly related to the science of network adjustment.
:* Literature, Edited by J.F.A Moore (1992). "Monitoring Building Structures". Blackie and Son Ltd. ISBN 0-216-93141-X, USA and Canada ISBN 0-442-31333-0
Papers & Examples of automatic deformation monitoring systems
** [http://www.groundprobe.com/docs/NealHarries_JanFeb08Bulletin.pdf The use of Slope Stability Radar (SSR) in managing Slope Instability Hazards, AusIMM Bulletin, January/February 2008]
** [http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2007/papers/ts_1f/ts01f_02_tang_etal_1326.pdf FIG 2007 - Application of Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Hong Kong KSL Railway Monitoring]
** [http://www.amerisurv.com/PDF/TheAmericanSurveyor_Speed-StructuralMonitoring_October2007.pdf The American Surveyor (Oct 2007) - 24/7 Structural Monitoring]
** [http://portal.leicaus.com/enewsletters/enews2.9/UnmannedOct07.pdf Professional Surveyor Magazine (Oct 2007) - Unmanned and Secure]
** [http://www.leica-geosystems.com/common/shared/downloads/inc/downloader.asp?id=8542 Monitoring of Open Pit Mines using Combined GNSS Satellite Receivers and Robotic Total Stations]
** [http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2007/papers/ts_2f/ts02f_02_vancranenbroeck_1328.pdf FIG 2007 - Continuous Beam Deflection Monitoring Using Precise Inclinometers]
** [http://www.ausimm.com.au/paperdetails.php?PaperID=2689 Safety and Financial Value Created by Good Slope Management Strategies and Tactics]
** [http://www.acppubs.com/article/CA6452957.html Deformation monitoring system protects personnel and structures through early detection]
** [http://www.leica-geosystems.com/common/shared/downloads/inc/downloader.asp?id=6441 The American Surveyor (Spring 2006) - Robots Survey Dulles Tunnels]
** [https://www.fig.net/commission6/baden_2006/PDF/OC/VanCranenbroeck.pdf FIG 2006 - Driving Burj Dubai Core Walls With An Advanced Data Fusion System]
** [http://www.saimm.co.za/events/0604rockslopes/downloads/361-374_Jooste.pdf Survey Slope Stability Monitoring Lessons from Venetia Diamond Mine]
** [http://www.leica-geosystems.com/common/shared/downloads/inc/downloader.asp?id=8543 Advances in RTK and Post Processed Monitoring with Single Frequency GPS]
** [http://www.fig.net/pub/athens/papers/ts16/TS16_2_Cranenbroeck_Brown.pdf FIG 2004 - Networking Motorized Total Stations and GPS Receivers for Deformation Measurements]
** [http://www.fig.net/nottingham/proc/gs_07_cranenbroeck.pdf Leica GPS Spider for Deformation Monitoring]
** [http://www.iv2004.ethz.ch/programm/Session/S_08_IV2004.pdf Nachweis von Turmbewegungen mit einem Multisensorsystem]
** [http://www.messwerte.ch/beispiel/ Flotron AG Chüebalmtunnel A8, Iseltwald (BE)]
** [http://sc.gpsworld.com/gpssc/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=308346 Monitoring Hong Kong's Bridges Real-Time Kinematic Spans The Gap]
** [http://rincon.gps.caltech.edu/FIG10sym/pdf/Session%20III_Paper%202.pdf FIG 2001 - Modern Monitoring System Software Development]
Companies that are providing automatic deformation monitoring systems
* [http://www.groundprobe.com/slopestability.html GroundProbe Slope Stability Radar]
* [http://www.leica-geosystems.com/corporate/en/products/software/lgs_4802.htm Leica GeoMoS Automatic Deformation Monitoring Software]
* [http://www.measurandgeotechnical.com Measurand Inc Unattended 3D Slope Monitoring]
* [http://www.goca.info GNSS/LPS based Online Control and Alarm System and Software (GOCA)]
* [http://www.ft.com.hk FT Laboratories Ltd. > Surveying Division > Web based ADMS]
* [http://www.netmodule.com/store/publications/Drahtlos_kommunizieren.pdf Polyscope10/07 Drahtlos kommunizieren]
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