Agathodaimon (c. 300) was an
alchemistin late Roman Egypt, known only from fragments of medieval alchemical treatises, chiefly the "Anepigraphos", which refer to works of his believed to be from the 3rd century.Brian P. Copenhaver "Hermetica". Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 052142543] He is primarily remembered for his various descriptions of elements and minerals, most particularly his descriptions of a method of producing silver, and of a substance he had created, which he called a 'fiery poison', and which, judging by his account, was arsenic trioxide, a highly toxic amphoteric oxide.
He described the 'fiery poison' as being formed when a certain mineral (most probably
realgaror orpiment) was fused with natron(naturally occurring sodium carbonate), and that dissolved in water to give a clear solution. He also wrote of how, when he placed a fragment of copperinto the solution, the copper turned a deep green hue, lending further validity to the suggestion that orpiment or realgar was used, as they are both arsenicores, and this would be the hue achieved from the copper after it had been placed in the arsenic trioxide had the substance formed been copper arsenite.John Emsley "The Elements of Murder: A History of Poison". Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0192806009.]
Agathodaimon's discoveries exist as part of the foundations for later use of poison, as arsenic and related substances were used regularly in later centuries as means of poisoning and murder. Since the only records of his existence are references in later works, he may be apocryphal, but since the practice of alchemy itself began to decline around the time he is believed to have lived, and it may be that much of his writing was lost. Some of the writings of other alchemists on alchemy of the time were preserved and saved by a
sectof dissident Christians, who called themselves the Nestorians, and who were able to escape to Persiaat around 400. [R. A. Bowland "What Does the Future Hold for Mankind". Xlibris Corporation, 2002. ISBN 1401040438] This information that was gathered by the Nestorians eventually passed on to the Arabs, and this in part contributed to the flourishing of alchemy in that region and in their hands; the modern English word "alchemy" comes from the Arabic language, and many of the foundations for alchemy in Western nations were laid by the Arabs. [Joseph Jastrow "Story of Human Error". Ayer Publishing, 1936. ISBN 0836905687]
Zosimos of Panopolis- another Egyptian-born alchemist who lived at approximately the same time, and who described chemical processes such as distillationand sublimation.
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