Hans Reichenbach

Hans Reichenbach

Infobox Philosopher
region = Western Philosophy
era = 20th-century philosophy
color = #B0C4DE

name = Hans Reichenbach
birth = birth date|1891|09|26 Hamburg, German Empire (now in Germany)
death = death date|1953|04|09 Los Angeles, USA
school_tradition = Analytic
main_interests = Philosophy of science
notable_ideas =
influences =
influenced = Berlin Circle, Vienna Circle

Hans Reichenbach (September 26, 1891 in HamburgApril 9, 1953 in Los Angeles) was a leading philosopher of science, educator and proponent of logical empiricism. Reichenbach is best known for founding the Berlin Circle, and as the author of "The Rise of Scientific Philosophy".

Life and work

After completing the secondary school in Hamburg, he studied civil engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart, and physics, mathematics and philosophy at various universities, including Berlin, Erlangen, Göttingen and Munich. Among his teachers were Ernst Cassirer, David Hilbert, Max Planck, Max Born and Arnold Sommerfeld. Reichenbach was active in youth movements and student organizations, and published articles about the university reform, the freedom of research, and against anti-Semitic infiltrations in student organizations.

Reichenbach received a degree in philosophy from the University of Erlangen in 1915 and his dissertation on the theory of probability, supervised by Paul Hensel and Emmy Noether, was published in 1916. Reichenbach served during World War I on the Russian front, in the German army radio troops. In 1917 he was removed from active duty, due to an illness, and returned in Berlin. While working as a physicist and engineer, Reichenbach attended Albert Einstein's lectures on the theory of relativity in Berlin from 1917 to 1920.

In 1920 Reichenbach began teaching at the Technische Hochschule at Stuttgart as "Privatdozent". In the same year, he published his first book on the philosophical implications of the theory of relativity, "The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge", which criticized the Kantian notion of synthetic a priori. He subsequently published "Axiomatization of the Theory of Relativity" (1924), "From Copernicus to Einstein" (1927) and "The Philosophy of Space and Time" (1928), the last stating the logical positivist view on the theory of relativity.

In 1926, with the help of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Max von Laue, Reichenbach became assistant professor in the physics department of Berlin University. He gained notice for his methods of teaching, as he was easily approached and his courses were open to discussion and debate. This was highly unusual at the time, although the practice is nowadays a common one.

In 1928, Reichenbach founded the so-called "Berlin Circle" (German: "Die Gesellschaft für empirische Philosophie"; English: "Society for Empirical Philosophy"). Among its members were Carl Gustav Hempel, Richard von Mises, David Hilbert and Kurt Grelling. In 1930 he and Rudolf Carnap began editing the journal "Erkenntnis" ("Knowledge").

When Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Reichenbach emigrated to Turkey, where he headed the Department of Philosophy at the University of Istanbul. He introduced interdisciplinary seminars and courses on scientific subjects, and in 1935 he published "The Theory of Probability".

In 1938, with the help of Charles W. Morris, Reichenbach moved to the United States to take up a professorship at the University of California, Los Angeles. His work on the philosophical foundations of quantum mechanics was published in 1944, followed by "Elements of Symbolic Logic" in 1947, and "The Rise of Scientific Philosophy" — his most popular book [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Printonly/Reichenbach.html] — in 1951.

Reichenbach helped establish UCLA as a leading philosophy department in the United States in the post-war period. Hilary Putnam, one of the major names in Western Philosophy during the latter half of the 20th century, may have been his most prominent student.

Reichenbach died in Los Angeles on April 9, 1953, while working on problems in the philosophy of time and on the nature of scientific laws. This work resulted in two books published posthumously: "The Direction of Time" and "Nomological Statements and Admissible Operations".

teachers=Max Born
Ernst Cassirer
David Hilbert
Max Planck
Arnold Sommerfeld
Albert Einstein
students=Carl Hempel
Hilary Putnam
Wesley Salmon

Selected publications

*1916. "Der Begriff der Wahrscheinlichkeit für die mathematische Darstellung der Wirklichkeit". Ph.D. dissertation, Erlangen.
*1920. "Relativitätstheorie und Erkenntnis apriori". English translation: 1965. "The theory of relativity and a priori knowledge". University of California Press.
*1922. "Der gegenwärtige Stand der Relativitätsdiskussion." English translation: "The present state of the discussion on relativity" in Reichenbach (1959).
*1924. "Axiomatik der relativistischen Raum-Zeit-Lehre". English translation: 1969. "Axiomatization of the theory of relativity". University of California Press.
*1924. "Die Bewegungslehre bei Newton, Leibniz und Huyghens." English translation: "The theory of motion according to Newton, Leibniz, and Huyghens" in Reichenbach (1959).
*1927. "Von Kopernikus bis Einstein. Der Wandel unseres Weltbildes". English translation: 1942, "From Copernicus to Einstein". Alliance Book Co.
*1928. "Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre". English translation: Maria Reichenbach, 1957, "The Philosophy of Space and Time". Dover. ISBN 0-486-60443-8
*1930. "Atom und Kosmos. Das physikalische Weltbild der Gegenwart". English translation: 1932, "Atom and cosmos: the world of modern physics". G. Allen & Unwin, ltd.
*1931. "Ziele und Wege der heutigen Naturphilosophie." English translation: "Aims and methods of modern philosophy of nature" in Reichenbach (1959).
*1935. "Wahrscheinlichkeitslehre : eine Untersuchung über die logischen und mathematischen Grundlagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung". English translation: 1948, "The theory of probability, an inquiry into the logical and mathematical foundations of the calculus of probability". University of California Press.
*1938. "Experience and prediction: an analysis of the foundations and the structure of knowledge". University of Chicago Press.
*1942. "From Copernicus to Einstein" Dover 1980: ISBN 0-486-23940-3
*1944. "Philosophic Foundations of Quantum Mechanics". University of California Press. Dover 1998: ISBN 0-486-40459-5
*1947. "Elements of Symbolic Logic". Macmillan Co. Dover 1980: ISBN 0-486-24004-5
*1948. "Philosophy and physics" in "Faculty research lectures, 1946". University of California Press.
*1949. "The philosophical significance of the theory of relativity" in Schilpp, P. A., ed., "Albert Einstein: philosopher-scientist". Evanston : The Library of Living Philosophers.
*1951. "The Rise of Scientific Philosophy". University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-01055-0
*1954. "Nomological statements and admissible operations". North Holland.
*1956. "The Direction of Time". University of California Press. Dover 1971: ISBN 0-486-40926-0
*1959. "Modern philosophy of science: Selected essays by Hans Reichenbach". Routledge & Kegan Paul. Greenwood Press 1981: ISBN 0-313-23274-1
*1978. "Selected writings, 1909-1953: with a selection of biographical and autobiographical sketches" (Vienna circle collection). Dordrecht: Reidel. Springer paperback vol 1: ISBN 90-277-0292-6
*1979. "Hans Reichenbach, logical empiricist" (Synthese library). Dordrecht : Reidel.
*1991. "Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach". Kluwer. Springer 2003: ISBN 0-7923-1408-5
*1991. "Logic, language, and the structure of scientific theories : proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach centennial", University of Konstanz, 21-24 May 1991. University of Pittsburgh Press.


*Grünbaum, A., 1963, "Philosophical Problems of Space and Time". Chpt. 3.
*Carl Hempel, 1991, "Hans Reichenbach remembered", "Erkenntnis 35": 5-10.
*Wesley Salmon, 1977, "The philosophy of Hans Reichenbach," "Synthese 34": 5-88.
*------, 1991, "Hans Reichenbach's vindication of induction," "Erkenntnis 35": 99-122.

External links

* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9780520010550 "The Rise of Scientific Philosophy"] Descriptive summary & full searchable text at Google Book Search
*MacTutor Biography|id=Reichenbach
*The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: [http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/reichenb.htm Hans Reichenbach] by Mauro Murzi.
*The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reichenbach/ Hans Reichenbach] by Clark Glymour and Frederick Eberhardt.
*The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: " [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/physics-Rpcc/ Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle] " by Frank Arntzenius.

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