- Hospital accreditation
Hospital accreditation has been defined as “A self-assessment and external peer assessment process used by health care organisations to accurately assess their level of performance in relation to established standards and to implement ways to continuously improve” [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/323/7310/443] . Critically, accreditation is not just about standard-setting: there are analytical, counselling and self-improvement dimensions to the process. There are parallel issues around
evidence-based medicine, quality assuranceand medical ethics(see below), and the reduction of medical erroris a key role of the accreditation process. Hospital accreditation is therefore one component in the maintenance of patient safety.
Broadly speaking, there exist two types of hospital accreditation
1) hospital and healthcare accreditation which takes place within national borders
international healthcare accreditation.
Hospitals and healthcareservices are vital components of any well-ordered and humane society, and will indisputably be the recipients of societal resources. That hospitals should be places of safety, not only for patients but also for the staff and for the general public, is of the greatest importance. Quality of hospitals and healthcare services is also of great interest to many other bodies, including governments, NGOs targeting healthcare and social welfare, professional organisations representing doctors, patient organisations, shareholders of companies providing healthcare services, etc. However, accreditation schemes are not the same thing as government-controlled initiatives set up to assess healthcare providers with only governmental objectives in mind - ideally, the functioning and finance of hospital accreditation schemes should be independent of governmental control.
How quality is maintained and improved in hospitals and healthcare services is the subject of much debate. Hospital surveying and accreditation is one recognised means by which this can be achieved.
It is not just an issue of hospital quality. There are financial factors as well. For example, in the USA, up until recently the
Joint Commissionexercised a "de facto" veto over whether or not US hospitals and other health providers were able to participate, and therefore earn from, the Medicare and Medicaidprograms. This situation has changed in recent years.
National Hospital accreditation schemes
Accreditation schemes well-recognised as providers of national healthcare accreditation services include:
- Malaysian Society for Quality in Health, or MSQH - based in
Trent Accreditation Scheme, TRENT - based in UK- Europeand Hong Kong[http://www.trentaccreditationscheme.org/]
- Australian Council for Healthcare Standards International, or ACHSI - based in
- Canadian Council on Health Services Accreditation, or CCHSA - based in
Joint Commission(JC) - based in the USA[http://www.jointcommission.org/]
Community Health Accreditation Program(CHAP) - based in the USA[http://www.chapinc.org/]
Accreditation Commission for Health CareInc. (ACHC) - based in the USA[http://www.achc.org/]
The Compliance Team: "Exemplary Provider Programs" - based in the USA[http://www.exemplaryprovider.com/]
Healthcare Quality Association on Accreditation(HQAA) - based in the USA[http://www.hqaa.org/default.asp]
TÜV Healthcare Specialists- based in the USA[http://tuvamerica.com/newhome.cfm] [http://www.tuvamerica.com/tuvnews/newsletters/pdfs/prid1053.pdf]
The different accreditation schemes vary in quality, size, intent and the skill of their marketing. They also vary considerable in terms of the cost incurred by hospitals and healthcare institutions. They have varying degrees of commitment to assessing medical ethical standards and clinical standards.
They all have web sites.
Some also undertake
international healthcare accreditationwork. The Trent Scheme was the first to accredit a hospital in Asia, in Hong Kong in 2000 [http://www.union.org/new/english/about_us/mission.htm] . Since then others such as [JCI] have entered the market.
USAhas a large number of accreditation schemes, with the Joint Commission, or JCI, being the best known. The cost of becoming JCI accreditated is hard to establish, but may be considerable. [http://joint-commission.blogspot.com/2008/02/jci-how-much-do-they-charge-hospitals.html]
International healthcare accreditation
List of healthcare accreditation organisations in the USA
United Kingdom Accreditation Forum
* [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/322/7287/674/a Rawlins R. Hospital accreditation is important. BMJ 2001;322:674]
* [http://www.emro.who.int/mei/HARole.htm Role of WHO in hospital accreditation. © 2004 WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean]
* [http://www.hmi.hms.harvard.edu/cc/health_care_sys/hospital_accreditation.php Harvard Medical International: Hospital Accreditation Readiness.]
* [http://www.ukaf.org.uk/TAS.htm United Kingdom Accreditation Forum.]
* [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/311/7008/818/b?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=accreditation&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT Robinson R. Book Review - "Accreditation: Protecting the Professional or the Consumer?" BMJ 1995;311:818-819.]
* [http://www.expresshealthcaremgmt.com/200511/accreditation01.shtml Gupta J & Das B. Developing national accreditation systems: Needs, challenges & future directions. Express Healthcare Management, November 2005. © Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Limited.]
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