Capparis

Capparis

:"Capparis" is also a family name, see e.g. Melpomene Capparis."taxobox



image_caption = Native Caper or "pua pilo", "Capparis sandwichiana"
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Eudicots
unranked_ordo = Rosids
ordo = Brassicales
familia = Capparaceae
genus = "Capparis"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Many, see text|

"Capparis" is a plant genus in the family Capparaceae which is included in the Brassicaceae in the unrevised APG II system. These plants are shrubs or lianas and are collectively known as caper shrubs or caperbushes. "Capparis" species occur over a wide range of habitat in the subtropical and tropical zones.

Uses and ecology

Caperbushes are mainly used by humans for their fruit, which are rich in micronutrients. "C. spinosa", simply known as caper, yields fruit and more importantly flower buds, which are widely used pickled as a vegetable condiment. The fruit of other species, such as "karir" ("C. decidua"), are also used for cooking; "C. mitchellii" and the Wild passionfruit (the local subspecies of "C. spinosa") are well-known bush tucker in Australia. Mabinlang seeds ("C. masaikai") are eaten as sweets.

Mabinlang is also used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. "Aspalathos", the root of a shrub contained for example in the sacred Ancient Egyptian incense "kp.t" (kyphi), is sometimes considered to be "C. spinosa". Other species have also recorded uses in herbalism and folk medicine; dedicated research is largely lacking however. Mabinlins are sweet-tasting proteins found in Mabinlang seed (and possibly in other "Capparis" species); at least one of them is highly resistant to heat. The market for mabinlins is presently not large, but this is mainly due to insufficient supply rather than to lack of demand.

Caperbushes from arid regions - chiefly "C. decidua" - are highly useful in landscape gardening, afforestation and reforestation. They can stop soil erosion and preserve agricultural land. Any large-flowered species can be used to attract butterflies. The Crimson Rose ("Atrophaneura hector"), a spectacular swallowtail butterfly of South Asia, likes to visit flowers of "C. spinosa" in the winter months for example.

The fruit and seeds of caperbushes are relished by many birds and other animals such as spiny-tailed lizards. "Capparis" plants are highly important as food for certain Lepidoptera caterpillars, many of them Colotini or Pierini:
* "Appias lyncida" (Chocolate Albatross) - recorded on "C. heyneana" and "C. roxburghii"
* "Astraptes fulgerator" (Two-barred Flasher) - recorded on "C. frondosa" [Hébert "et al." (2004), Brower "et al." (2006)]
* "Belenois aurota" (Caper White or Pioneer) - recorded on "C. zeylanica"
* "Cepora nerissa" (Common Gull) - mainly on "C. zeylanica"
* "Hebomoia glaucippe" (Great Orangetip) - recorded on "C. monii", "C. roxburghii" and "C. "sepiaria""
* "Ixias marianne" (White Orangetip) - recorded on "C. grandis"Verify source|date=December 2007
* "Leptosia nina" (Psyche) - recorded on "C. zeylanica" and others
* "Pareronia ceylonica" (Dark Wanderer) - recorded on "C. heyneana"Verify source|date=December 2007
* "Pareronia valeria" (Common Wanderer) - recorded on "C. zeylanica"Verify source|date=December 2007

The plant pathogenic ascomycete fungus "Mycosphaerella capparis" was described from a caperbush. Some species of "Capparis" are becoming rare, mainly due to habitat destruction, and a few are seriously threatened with extinction.

elected species

* "Capparis arborea" (F.Muell.) Maiden – Brush Caper
* "Capparis baducca"
* "Capparis crotonantha"
* "Capparis cynophallophora" – Jamaican Caper
* "Capparis decidua" (= "C. aphylla") – "karir" ("kirir", "k(h)air", "karril", etc)
* "Capparis discolor"
* "Capparis fascicularis" DC.
** "Capparis fascicularis" var. "fascicularis"
* "Capparis flexuosa" L. – Limber Caper
* "Capparis frondosa"
* "Capparis grandis"
* "Capparis hastata"
* "Capparis heterophylla"
* "Capparis heyneana"
* "Capparis humistrata" (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
* "Capparis indica"
* "Capparis lasiantha" R.Br. ex DC.
* "Capparis lucida" (DC.) R.Br. ex Benth.
* "Capparis masaikai" – Mabinlang
* "Capparis micracantha"
* "Capparis mirifica"
* "Capparis mitchellii" – "wild orange" (Australia), "merne atwakeye" (Arrernte)
* "Capparis mollicella"
* "Capparis monii"
* "Capparis nobilis" (Endl.) F.Muell. ex Benth.
* "Capparis ornans" F.Muell. ex Benth.
* "Capparis pachyphylla"
* "Capparis panamensis"
* "Capparis prisca"
* "Capparis pyrifolia" – Pea-leaved Caper
* "Capparis roxburghii"
* "Capparis sandwichiana" – Native Caper, "maiapiloVerify source|date=December 2007 , pua pilo" (Hawaiian)
* "Capparis sepiaria" L. – a cryptic species complex
** "Capparis sepiaria" var. "citrifolia" (Lam.) Tölken
** "Capparis sepiaria" var. "subglabra" (Oliv.) De Wolf
* "Capparis shanesiana" F.Muell.
* "Capparis spinosa" – Caper
** "Capparis spinosa" ssp. "nummularia" – Wild passionfruit, "merne arrutnenge" (Arrernte)
* "Capparis sprucei"
* "Capparis thozetiana" (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
* "Capparis tomentosa" Lam.
* "Capparis uniflora"
* "Capparis zeylandica" L. (= "C. linearis" Blanco) – "kapchip" (Wayuunaiki)

Formerly placed here

* "Boscia oleoides" (as "Capparis oleoides")

ee also

* Caparica (Almada)

Footnotes

www.kapari.com

References

* (2006): Problems with DNA barcodes for species delimitation: ‘ten species’ of "Astraptes fulgerator" reassessed (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). "Systematics and Biodiversity" 4(2): 127–132. doi|10.1017/S147720000500191X [http://www.bolinfonet.org/pdf/Brower_2006SYSTBIODIVERSITY%5B1%5D.pdf PDF fulltext]
* (2004): Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the semitropical skipper butterfly "Astraptes fulgerator". "PNAS" 101(41): 14812-14817. doi|10.1073/pnas.0406166101 [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/101/41/14812.pdf PDF fulltext] [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0406166101/DC1 Supporting Appendices]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • CAPPARIS — apud Plin. l. 13. c. 23. firmioris ligni frutex, seminisque et cibi vulgati, caule quoque una plerumque decerptô. Et l. 15. c. 28. ubi caulem in cibos receptura ait, In fruticoso genere cum caule capparis. Vide eundem, l. 20. c. 15. ubi de natura …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Cappăris — (C. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Capparideen, 1. Ordn. 13. Kl. L. Arten: zahlreich, fast alle in heißen Ländern; Sträucher mit liegenden od. von Mauern herabhängenden zahlreichen Ästen: C. spinosa (Gemeine Kapper), in Italien, Spanien …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Cappăris — L. (Kapernstrauch), Gattung der Kapparidazeen, unbewehrte oder dornige, kahle, weichhaarige oder schuppige Bäume oder Sträucher, nicht selten kletternd, bisweilen mit blattartigen oder dornigen Nebenblättern (Hakenkletterer), mit einfachen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Capparis — Cappăris L., Pflanzengattg. der Kapparidazeen, Sträucher oder Bäume mit lederartigen Blättern; die Blütenknospen von C. spinōsa L. (Kapernstrauch [Abb. 315]) sind die Kapern (s.d.) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Capparis —   Capparis …   Wikipedia Español

  • Capparis — Capparis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Capparis — kaparis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Kaparinių (Capparaceae) šeimos augalų gentis (Capparis). atitikmenys: lot. Capparis angl. caper bush vok. Kapernstrauch rus. каперсы lenk. kapary …   Dekoratyvinių augalų vardynas

  • Capparis — ID 14104 Symbol Key CAPPA Common Name caper Family Capparaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity N/A US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution FL, HI, PR, TX, VI Growth Habit N/A …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Capparis — noun tropical or subtropical evergreen shrubs or small trees • Syn: ↑genus Capparis • Hypernyms: ↑dilleniid dicot genus • Member Holonyms: ↑Capparidaceae, ↑family Capparidaceae, ↑caper family …   Useful english dictionary

  • Capparis sandwichiana — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Capparis sandwichiana Estado …   Wikipedia Español

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