Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville

Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville

Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville (March 9, 1818-July 1, 1881) was a French chemist.

He was born in the island of St Thomas, West Indies, where his father was French consul. Together with his elder brother Charles he was educated in Paris at the College Rollin. In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besançon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851. Returning to Paris in the latter year he succeeded A. J. Balard at the École Normale, and in 1859 became professor at the Sorbonne in place of J. B. A. Dumas, for whom he had begun to lecture in 1853. He died at Boulogne-sur-Seine.

He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene. But his most important work was in inorganic and thermal chemistry. In 1849 he discovered anhydrous nitric acid (nitrogen pentoxide), a substance interesting as the first obtained of the so-called "anhydrides" of the monobasic acids. In 1855, ignorant of what Friedrich Wöhler had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed. With H. J. Debray (1827-1888) he worked at the platinum metals, his object being on the one hand to prepare them pure, and on the other to find a suitable metal for the standard metre for the International Metric Commission then sitting at Paris. With L. J. Troost (b. 1825) he devised a method for determining vapour densities at temperatures up to 1400˚C, and, partly with F. Wohler, he investigated the allotropic forms of silicon and boron. The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isorhor-phous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments. But his best known contribution to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of "dissociation." He first took up the subject about 1857, and it was in the course of his investigations on it that he devised the apparatus known as the "Deville hot and cold tube."

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* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13346b.htm Catholic Encyclopedia article]

References

*cite journal
author = Jaime Wisniak
title = Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville: A physician turned metallurgist
journal = Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance
year = 2004
volume = 13
issue = 2
pages = 117–128
doi = 10.1361/10599490418271

*cite journal
author = A.G. Morachevskii
title = Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville (to 150th anniversary of the development of the first industrial method for production of aluminum)
journal = Journal Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry
year = 2006
volume = 79
issue = 10
pages = 1731–1735
doi = 10.1134/S1070427206100399


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  • Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville — (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war Professor in Besançon u …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville — (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war Professor in Be …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville —     Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville     Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881; brother of the preceding. Finishing his classical… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Henri Sainte-Claire Deville — Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville (* 11. März 1818 in Saint Thomas, Westindien; † 1. Juli 1881 in Boulogne sur Seine, heute: Boulogne Billancourt) war ein französischer Chemiker. Sainte Claire Deville war… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE (H.) — SAINTE CLAIRE DEVILLE HENRI (1818 1881) Chimiste français né à l’île Saint Thomas (Antilles) et mort à Boulogne sur Seine. Fils d’un consul de France, Henri Étienne Sainte Claire Deville obtient, en 1844, deux doctorats, en médecine et en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Charles Joseph Sainte-Claire Deville — Not to be confused with Henri Etienne Sainte Claire Deville. Charles SAINTE CLAIRE DEVILLE Charles Joseph Sainte Claire Deville (February 26, 1814 – October 10, 1876) was a geologist and meteorologist. Born in St Thomas he was the brother of… …   Wikipedia

  • Deville , Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire — (1818–1881) French chemist The son of a wealthy shipowner from the West Indies island of St. Thomas, Deville studied medicine in Paris but became interested in chemistry by attending Louis Thenard s lectures. He isolated toluene and methyl… …   Scientists

  • Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne — • Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sainte-Claire Deville —   [sɛ̃tklɛːrdə vil], Henri Étienne, französischer Chemiker, * auf Saint Thomas (Virgin Islands) 11. 3. 1818, ✝ Boulogne sur Seine (heute Boulogne Billancourt) 1. 7. 1881; Professor in Besançon (1845 51) und Paris. Sainte Claire Deville… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sainte-Claire Deville — (spr. ßängt klǟr döwĭl ), 1) Charles, Geolog und Meteorolog, geb. 26. Febr. 1814 auf St. Thomas, gest. 10. Okt. 1876 in Paris, besuchte die Bergschule in Paris, bereiste Westindien, Teneriffa, die Kapverdischen Inseln und wurde Präsident der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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