Prince of Novgorod

Prince of Novgorod

The Prince of Novgorod ( _ru. Князь новгородский, "knyaz novgorodskii") was the chief executive of Novgorod the Great. The office was originally an appointed one until the late eleventh or early twelfth century, then became something of an elective one until the fourteenth century, after which the Prince of Vladimir (who was almost always the Prince of Moscow) was almost invariably the Prince of Novgorod as well.

The office began sometime in the ninth century when, according to tradition, the Viking (Varangian) Riurik and his brothers were invited to rule over the Eastern Slavs, [Dmitry Likhachev, ed. and trans., "Povest Vremennikh Let" (Moscow and Augsburg: Im Werden Verlag, 2003), 7.] but real reliable information on the office dates only to the late tenth century when Vladimir the Great was prince of Novgorod. The office or title technically continued up until the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917 - among one of his titles (although his list of titles was rarely given in complete form) was Prince of Novgorod the Great.

After the chief Rurikid prince moved to Kiev in the late ninth century, he usually sent either his son or a posadnik (mayor), to rule on his behalf. Thus Sviatoslav I sent his son Vladimir the Great to rule in Novgorod, and after Vladimir became Grand Prince of Kiev, he sent his son, Yaroslav the Wise to reign in Novgorod.

Republican period

From the early twelfth century to 1478, the prince's power in the Republic of Novgorod was more nominal. Imperial and Soviet-era scholars often argued that the office was ineffectual after 1136, when Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich was dismissed by the Novgorodians, and that Novgorod could invite and dismiss its princes at will. [Boris Grekov, “Revoliutsiia v Novgorode v XII veke,” "Uchenye zapiski Instituta Istorii Rossiiskoi assotsiatsii nauchno-issledovatel’skikh institutov obshchestvennykh nauk" (RANION) vol. 4 (1929): 13-21; V. L. (Valentin Lavrent’evich) Yanin, “Problemy sotsial'noi organizatsii novgorodskoi respubliki,” "Istoriia SSSR", 1 (1970), 44; Valentin Yanin, "Novgoroskie Posadniki" (Moscow: Yazyki Slavianskoi kul'tury, 2003), 64-135.] In this way, the prince of Novgorod was no longer "ruler" of Novgorod but became an elective or appointed executive official of the city-state. [Michael C. Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" "Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas" 56, No. 1 (Spring 2008): 72-113.]

That being said, the traditional view of the prince being invited in or dismissed at will is an oversimplification of a long and complex history of the office. In fact, from the late tenth century to the fall of Novgorod in 1478, the princes of Novgorod were dismissed and invited only about half the time, and the vast majority of these cases occurred between 1095 and 1293, and not consistently so during that period. That is, the office was elective for perhaps two centuries and even then it was not always elective.. [Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" 94-97.] Even during this period, the nadir of princely power in the city, more powerful princes could assert their power independently over the city, as did Mstislav the Bold in the early 1200s, Alexander Nevsky in the 1240s and 50s, his brother Iaroslav in the 1260s and 70s, and others. [Michael C. Paul, “The Iaroslavichi and the Novgorodian Veche 1230-1270: A Case Study on Princely Relations with the Veche,” "Russian History/ Histoire Russe" 31, No. 1-2 (Spring-Summer, 2004): 39-59.]

According to a remark in the chronicles, Novgorod had the right, after 1196, to pick their prince of their own free will, [Arseny Nasonov, ed., "Novgorodskaia Pervaia Letopis Starshego i mladshego izvodov" (Moscow and Leningrad, ANSSSR, 1950), 43, 236; "Novgorodskaia chetvertaia letopis", vol. 4 of "Polnoe Sobranie Russkikh Letopisei" (Moscow: Iazyki russkoi kul'tury, 2000), 177; George Vernadsky, "Kievan Russia" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948), 197.] but again, the evidence indicates that even after that, princes were chosen and dismissed only about half the time, and Novgorod often chose the most powerful prince in Rus' as their prince. [N. L. (Natalia L’vovna) Podvigina, "Ocherki sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoi i politicheskoi istorii Novgoroda Velikogo v XII-XIII vv." (Moscow: Vysshaia shkola, 1976), 114; Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" 82-94.] That usually meant that the prince in Kiev, Vladimir or Moscow (who retained the title Grand Prince of Vladimir from about the 1320s onward, although there were several interruptions), either took the title himself or appointed his son or other relative to be prince of Novgorod. At times other princes, from Tver, Lithuania, and elsewhere, also vied for the Novgorodian throne. Thus Novgorod did not really choose its prince, but considering the political climate, they often very prudently went with the most senior or most powerful prince in the land if he did not impose himself (or his candidate) upon them.

What was different about Novgorod, then, was not so much that Novgorod could freely choose its princes - it really couldn't. Rather, what was unique was that no princely dynasty managed to establish itself within the city and take permanent control over the city. Rather, while other Rus' cities had established dynasties, the more powerful princes vied for control of Novgorod the Great, a most-desirable city to control given the vast wealth (from trade in furs) that flowed into the city in the medieval period. [On the fur trade, see Janet Martin, "Treasure of the Land of Darkness: The Fur Trade and Its Significance for Medieval Russia" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-Rate Bureaucrat' after 1136?"; see also the relevant sections (re: Novgorod) in Janet Martin, "Medieval Russia: 980-1584", (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).] .

In the absence of firmer princely control the local elites, the boyars, took control of the city and the offices of posadnik and tysiatsky became elective. [See Yanin, "Novgoroskie Posadniki".] The veche (public assembly) played a not insignificant role in public life, although the precise makeup of the veche and its powers is uncertain and still contested among historians. The posadnik, tysiatsky, and even the local bishop or archbishop (after 1165) were elected at the veche, and it is said the veche invited and dismissed the prince as well.

List of princes

[See also the list in Paul, "Was the Prince of Novgorod a 'Third-rate bureaucrat' after 1136?" " 109-113.]
* Burivoi (legendary Slovene ruler)
* Gostomysl (legendary Slovene ruler)
* Riurik
* Oleg (H-L-G-W ?), fl. 911/12
* Igor, 913-944 x
* Olga, fl. 955-957
* Sviatoslav Igorevich, 941-969
* Vladimir the Great, 969-977
* Iaropolk Sviatoslavich, 977-979
* Vladimir the Great (again), 979-988
* Viacheslav Vladimirovich, 988-1010
* Iaroslav the Wise, 1010-1034
* Vladimir Iaroslavich, 1034-1052
* Iziaslav Iaroslavich, 1052-1054
* Mstislav Iziaslavich, 1055-1067
* Gleb Sviatoslavich, 1055-1067
* -
* Gleb Sviatoslavich, 1069-1073
* -
* Gleb Sviatoslavich, 1077-1078
* Sviatopolk Iziaslavich, 1078-1088
* Mstislav Vladimirovich ("the Great"), 1088-1094
* Davyd Sviatoslavich, 1094-1095
* Mstislav Vladimirovich (again), 1095-1117
* Vsevolod Mstislavich, 1117-1132
* Sviatopolk Mstislavich, 1132
* Vsevolod Mstislavich (again), 1132-1136
* Sviatoslav Ol'govich, 1136-1138
* Sviatopolk Mstislavich (again), 1138
* Rostislav Iurevich, 1138-1140
* Sviatoslav Ol'govich (again), 1140-1141
* Sviatoslav Vsevolodich, 1141
* Rostislav Iurevich (again), 1141-1142
* Sviatopolk Mstislavich, 1142-1148
* Iaroslav Iziaslavich, 1148-1154
* Rostislav Mstislavich, 1154
* Davyd Rostislavich of Smolensk, 1154-1155
* Mstislav Iurevich, 1155-1158
* Sviatoslav Rostislavich of Smolensk, 1158-1160
* Mstislav Rostislavich ("the Eyeless"), 1160-1161
* Sviatoslav Rostislavich, 1161-1168
* Roman Mstislavich, 1168-1170
* Riurik Rostislavich, 1170-1171
* Iuri Andreevich, 1171-1175
* Sviatoslav Mstislavich, 1175-1176
* Mstislav Rostislavich the Eyeless (again), 1177
* Iaroslav Mstislavich, 1177
* Mstislav Rostislavich "the Eyeless" (3rd time), 1177-1178
* Iaropolk Rostislavich, 1178
* Roman Rostislavich, 1178-1179
* Mstislav Rostislavich ("the Bold"), 1179-1180
* Vladimir Sviatoslavich, 1180-1181
* Iaroslav Vladimirovich, 1182-1184
* Mstislav-Boris Davydovich, 1184-1187
* Iaroslav Vladimirovich (again), 1187-1196
* Iaropolk Iaroslavich, 1197
* Iaroslav Vladimirovich (3rd time), 1197-1199
* Sviatoslav Vsevolodich, 1200-1205
* Konstantin Vsevolodich, 1205-1207
* Sviatoslav Vsevolodich (again), 1207-1210
* Mstislav Mstislavich, 1210-1215
* Iaroslav Vsevolodich, 1215-1216
* Mstislav Mstislavich (again), 1216-1218
* Sviatoslav Mstislavich, 1218-1219
* Vsevolod Mstislavich, 1219-1221
* Vsevolod Iurevich (Dmitry), 1221
* Iaroslav Vsevolodich (again), 1221-1223
* Vsevolod Iurevich (again), 1223-1224
* Mikhail Vsevolodich, 1225
* Iaroslav Vsevolodich (3rd time), 1224-1228
* Fedor Iaroslavich, 1228-1229
* Aleksandr Iaroslavich ("Nevsky"), 1228-1229
* Mikhail Vsevolodich (again), 1229
* Rostislav Mikhailovich, 1229-1230
* Iaroslav Vsevolodich (4th time), 1230-1236
* Aleksandr Iaroslavich (again), 1236-1240
* Andrei Iaroslavich, 1241
* Aleksandr Iaroslavich (3rd time), 1241-1252
* Vasily Aleksandrovich, 1252-1255
* Iaroslav Iaroslavich, 1255
* Vasily Aleksandrovich (again), 1255-1258
* Aleksandr Iaroslavich (4th time), 1258-1260
* Dmitry Aleksandrovich, 1260-1263
* Vasily Iaroslavich, 1264-1272
* Dmitry Aleksandrovich (again), 1272-1273
* Vasily Iaroslavich (again), 1273-1276
* Dmitry Aleksandrovich (3rd time), 1276-1281
* Andrei Aleksandrovich, 1281-1285
* Dmitry Aleksandrovich (4th time), 1285-1292
* Andrei Aleksandrovich (again), 1292-1304
* Mikhail Iaroslavich, 1308-1314
* Afanasii Daniilovich, 1314-1315
* Mikhail Iaroslavich (again), 1315-1316
* Afanasii Daniilovich, 1318-1322
* Iurii Daniilovich, 1322-1325
* Aleksandr Mikhailovich, 1325-1327
* Ivan Daniilovich ("Kalita", "the Money-bag"), 1328-1337
* Semen Ivanovich, 1346-1353
* Ivan Ivanovich, 1355-1359
* Dmitry Konstantinovich, 1359-1363
* Dmitry Ivanovich ("Donskoi"), 1363-1389
* Lengvenis (Semen Olgerdovich), 1389-1407
* Vasily Dmitr'evich, 1408-1425
* Vasily Vasil'evich, 1425-1462
* Ivan Vasil'evich ("the Great"), 1462-1480


External links

* [ "Минникес И.В."Основания и порядок избрания князя в русском государстве Х-ХIV вв.АКАДЕМИЧЕСКИЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ №4(6)(октябрь-декабрь) 2001 г.\Иркутское ГНИУ Институт Законодательства и правовой информации]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Prince de Novgorod — Voici la liste des rois et princes de Novgorod, en Russie. Rois (konung) de Novgorod 862   879 : Rurik Ier, peut être fils du roi Anulo d’Haithabu 879   912 : Oleg le Sage 912   945 : Igor Ier de Kiev …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Prince of Novgorod-Seversk — was the kniaz , the ruler or sub ruler, of the Principality of Novgorod Seversk. It may have been created in 1139, the date of one modern authority, [ [,%20Rurik.htm# Toc111997324 FMG] .] and is most famous… …   Wikipedia

  • Novgorod Republic — Новгородская республика Novgorodskaya Zemlja ← …   Wikipedia

  • NOVGOROD — Les premières mentions de Novgorod, dont le nom signifie «ville neuve», remontent au IXe siècle; située sur le Volkhov, près du lac Ilmen, au nord de la voie commerciale reliant «les Varègues aux Grecs», la cité de Novgorod est l’un des deux… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Oleg Sviatoslavitch (prince de Novgorod) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Oleg Sviatoslavitch. Oleg Sviatoslavitch de Tchernigov (russe : Олег Святославич) prince riourikide mort le 1er août 1115, ennemi de Vladimir II Monomaque. Fils de Sviatoslav de Kiev et père des Grands… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Novgorod — /nov geuh rod /; Russ. /nawv geuh rddeuht/, n. a city in the Russian Federation in Europe, SE of St. Petersburg: a former capital of Russia. 228,000. * * * City (pop., 1999 est.: 231,700), northwestern Russia. Located on the Volkhov River north… …   Universalium

  • Prince Igor — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. le prince Igor Sviatoslavitch (1151 1201/1202), prince de Novgorod Severski Le Prince Igor (1890), ou Prince Igor, est un opéra du compositeur russe… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Prince of Chernigov — The Prince of Chernigov was the kniaz , the ruler or sub ruler, of the Rus Principality of Chernigov, a lordship which lasted four centuries straddling what are now parts of Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. List of princes of… …   Wikipedia

  • Prince of Pereyaslavl — The Prince of Pereyaslavl was the kniaz (the ruler or sub ruler) of the Rus Principality of Pereyaslavl, a lordship based on the city of Pereyaslavl (now Pereiaslav Khmelnytskyi ) on the Trubezh river [Martin, Medieval Russia , p. 4.] and… …   Wikipedia

  • Novgorod — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Novgorod (homonymie). Veliki Novgorod Великий Новгород …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”