Ishad (or "Shad", "Sad") was an
Old Turkicword used to designate the highest-ranking Göktürkgenerals (e.g., Buri-sad). It is also used in some Arabicsources to describe the Khagan Bekof the Khazars.
Kevin Alan Brook. "The Jews of Khazaria." 2nd ed. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2006.
Douglas M. Dunlop. "The History of the Jewish Khazars," Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1954.
Peter B. Golden. "Khazar Studies: An Historio-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars." Budapest: Akademia Kiado, 1980.
Norman Golband Omeljan Pritsak, "Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century." Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.
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