- Gas Cooled Reactor
A Gas Cooled Reactor (more commonly called a GCR) is a generation I
nuclear reactorthat uses graphiteas a neutron moderatorand carbon dioxideas coolant. Although there are many other types of reactor cooled by gas, the terms "GCR" and to a lesser extent "gas cooled reactor" are particularly used to refer to this type of reactor.
The GCR was able to use
natural uraniumas fuel, enabling the countries that developed them to fabricate their own fuel without relying on other countries for supplies of enriched uranium, which was at the time of their development only available from the United Statesor Soviet Union.
There were two main types of GCR:
Magnoxreactors developed by the United Kingdom.
UNGG reactors developed by France.
The main difference between these two types is in the fuel cladding material. Both types were mainly constructed in their countries of origin, with a few export sales: Magnox plants to
Italyand Japan, and a UNGG to Spain. Both types used fuel cladding materials that were unsuitable for medium term storage under water, making reprocessing an essential part of the nuclear fuel cycle.
Both types were, in their countries of origin, also designed and used to produce
weapons-grade plutonium, but at the cost of major interruption to their use for power generation despite the provision of online refuelling.
In the UK, the Magnox was replaced by the
advanced gas-cooled reactor(AGR). In France, the UNGG was replaced by the pressurized water reactor(PWR). More recently, GCRs based on the declassified drawings of the early Magnox reactors have been constructed by North Korea, leading to fears of their use for nuclear proliferation.
Generation II reactor
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