Umbrella species

Umbrella species

Umbrella species are species selected for making conservation related decisions. Species conservation can be subjective because it is hard to determine the status of many species. With millions of species of concern, the identification of selected "keystone species", "flagship species" or "umbrella species" makes conservation decisions easier. Umbrella species can be used to help select the locations of potential reserves, find the minimum size of these conservation areas or reserves, and to determine the composition, structure and processes of ecosystems. [Roberge, Jean-Michael and Per Angelstam. 2004. "Usefulness of the Umbrella Species Concept as a Conservation Tool." "Conservation Biology", Vol. 18, No. 1, 76-85]

Definitions

Two commonly used definitions:

* A: "A wide-ranging species whose requirements include those of many other species" [Groom, Martha J., Gary K. Meffe and C. Ronald Carroll. 2006. Principles of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates, Inc.]
* B: A species with large area requirements for which protection of the species offers protection to other species that share the same habitat [Ozaki, Kenichi, Masahiro Isono, Takayuki Kawahara, Shigeo Iida, Takuma Kudo and Kenji Fukuyama. 2006. "A Mechanistic Approach to Evaluation of Umbrella Speices as Conservation Surrogates." "Conservation Biology", Vol. 20, No. 5, 1507-1515.] [NOAA. 2007. Glossary. Available: http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/coris_glossary/index.aspx?letter=u.]

Other descriptions include:
*A: "The protection of umbrella species automatically extends protection to other species. i.e. spotted owl and old growth trees" [Wilmers, Christopher. 2007. Lecture: April 11, 2007.]
*B: "Traditional umbrella species, relatively large-bodied and wide-ranging species of higher vertebrates"Launer, Alan E. and Dennis D. Murphy. 1994. "Umbrella Species and the Conservation of Habitat Fragments: A Case of a Threatened Butterfly and a Vanishing Grassland Ecosystem." "Biological Conservation", Vol. 69, No. 2, 145-153.]

Use in landuse management

The use of umbrella species as a conservation tool is highly debated. Some scientists have found that the umbrella effect provides a simpler way to manage ecological communities. Others feel that a combination of other tools establish better land management reserves to help protect more species than just using umbrella species alone. Individual invertebrate species can be good umbrella species because they can protect older, unique ecosystems. There have been cases where umbrella species have protected a large amount of area which has been beneficial to surrounding species such as the northern spotted owl.

Currently research is being done on land management decisions based on using umbrella species to protect habitat of specific species as well as other organisms in the area. Dunk, Zielinski and Welsh (2006) [Dunk, Jeffrey R., William J. Zielinkski and Hartwell H. Walsh, Jr. 2006. “Evaluating reserves for species richness and representation in northern California.” "Diversity and Distributions", Vol. 12, 434-442.] reported that the reserves in Northern California (Klamath-Siskiyou forests), set aside for the northern spotted owl, also protect mollusks and salamanders within that habitat. According to their conclusions, the reserves set aside for the northern spotted owl “serve as a reasonable coarse-filter umbrella species for the taxa [they] evaluated,” which were the mollusks and salamanders.

Use in the Endangered Species Act (USA)

The Bay checkerspot butterfly has been on the Endangered Species List since 1987 and is still currently listed. Launer and Murphy (1994) tried to determine whether this butterfly could be considered an umbrella species in protecting the native grassland it inhabits. They discovered that the Endangered Species Act (ESA) has a loophole to eliminate federally protected plants that reside on private property. However, the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) reinforces state conservation regulations. Using the ESA to protect termed umbrella species and their habitats can be controversial because they are not as reinforced in some states as others (such as California) to protect overall biodiversity.

Examples of umbrella species

# Northern spotted owls and old growth forest : ex. Molluscs and salamanders are within the protective boundaries of the northern spotted owl.
# Bay checkerspot butterfly and grasslands
# Tigers in India. Project Tiger was launched to save the tiger and thereby its habitat and other species within it.

See also

* biodiversity
* conservation biology
* U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
* endangered species
* land management

References

External links

* [http://coris.noaa.gov/data/ NOAA]
* [http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esaall.pdf The Endangered Species Act of 1973]
* [http://www.fws.gov/endangered/ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service]
* [http://essig.berkeley.edu/endins/baycheck.htm Bay checkerspot butterfly]
* [http://www.fws.gov/endangered/i/B6K.html Northern Spotted Owl]


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