William Lyne

William Lyne

Sir William John Lyne KCMG (6 April 1844 - 3 August 1913), Australian politician, was Premier of New South Wales and a member of the first federal ministry.

Early life

Lyne was born at Apslawn, Tasmania. He was the eldest son of John Lyne, a property owner, who was later a member of the Tasmanian House of Assembly from 1880 - 1893. [cite web | year = 2005 | url = http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/history/tasparl/lynej177.htm | title = John Lyne | work = The Parliament of Tasmania from 1856 | publisher = Parliament of Tasmania | accessdate = 2007-08-20 and cite web | year = 2007 | url = http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/lc/rattraywagner/apsley.htm | title = Electorate of Apsley - History | work = | publisher = Parliament of Tasmania | accessdate = 2007-08-20] He was educated at Horton College, Ross, and subsequently by a private tutor. He left Tasmania aged 20 to take up land in northern Queensland, but finding the climate did not suit him, returned to Tasmania a year later. He became a clerk at Glamorgan Council. After 10 years, Lyne left for the mainland again in 1875 and took up land at Cumberoona near Albury, New South Wales.cite web | first=Percival | last=Serle | title =Lyne, Sir William John (1844-1913) | publisher =Project Gutenberg Australia | work=Dictionary of Australian Biography | url =http://gutenberg.net.au/dictbiog/0-dict-biogL.html#lyne1 | accessdate = 2007-04-14]

tate politics

Lyne was the member for Hume in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1880. A Protectionist, he was Secretary for Public Works in 1885 and from 1886 to 1887 and Secretary for Lands in 1889.cite web | title =Sir William John Lyne (1844 - 1913) | work =Members of Parliament | publisher =Parliament of New South Wales | url = http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/members.nsf/1fb6ebed995667c2ca256ea100825164/4e54dc7725819e8dca256cb4007d26c4!OpenDocument | accessdate = 2007-04-14] From 1891 to 1894, he became Secretary for Public Works again in the third ministry of George Dibbs. Lyne was a strong protectionist and fought hard for a high tariff. He also strongly supported railway expansion and pressed on with the building of the Culcairn to Corowa line in his own electorate.Australian Dictionary of Biography | first=Chris | last=Cunneen |authorlink = Chris Cunneen|year = 1986|id = A100177b | title =Lyne, Sir William John (1844 - 1913) |accessdate = 2007-04-14]

The Free Trade Party was still very strong in New South Wales, and George Reid won the 1895 election and Lyne became Leader of the Opposition due to Dibbs losing his seat. Reid had entrusted John Cash Neild with a preparation of a report upon old age pensions, and had promised the leader of the Labor Party that he would give Neild no payment for this without the sanction of Parliament. Finding that the work was much greater than he expected, Neild had asked for and obtained an advance in anticipation of a vote. Lyne, by a clever amendment of a vote of want of confidence, made it practically impossible for the Labor party to support Reid, thus aligning the Labor Party who held the balance of power against Reid. Lyne became Premier but in return for concessions from the Labor Party. [cite book | last = Childe | first = Vere Gordon | authorlink = Vere Gordon Childe | title = How Labour Governs | origyear = 1923 | accessdate = 2007-08-20 | publisher = www.marxist.org | chapter = Chapter II. The Theory and Practice of Caucus Control | chapterurl = http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/politics/childe/how-labor-governs/ch02.htm] Lyne had Labor promise specific reforms and passed 85 Acts between July and December 1900, including early closing of retail shops, coal mines regulation and miners' accident relief, old-age pensions and graduated death duties.

Lyne was a consistent opponent of the Federation of Australia until the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901. He was one of the representatives of New South Wales at the 1897 convention and sat on the finance committee, but did not have an important influence on the debates. When the campaign began before the referendum of 1898 Lyne declared himself against the bill, and at the second referendum held in 1899 he was the only New South Wales convention representative who was still dissatisfied with the amended bill. Reid after some vacillation had, however, declared himself whole-heartedly on the side of federation, and the referendum showed a substantial majority on the "Yes" side.

Federal politics

As Premier of the largest colony, Lyne considered himself entitled to be the first Prime Minister of Australia when the colonies federated in January 1901. In December 1900 the Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun offered the post to Lyne, but because Lyne had opposed federation, most senior politicians, notably Alfred Deakin, told Hopetoun that they would not serve under Lyne. Hopetoun was forced to accept the majority view that Edmund Barton, the leader of the federation movement, should be Prime Minister.

Lyne became Minister for Home Affairs in his cabinet on 1 January 1901 and was elected to the first federal Parliament as member for the Division of Hume in March 1901. He was responsible for the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 (preceded the Commonwealth Electoral Act), including the introduction of women's suffrage and the establishment of the Commonwealth Public Service. He remained Minister for Home Affairs until Charles Kingston left the cabinet, and became Minister for Trade and Customs in his stead on 7 August 1903. He retained this position when Deakin became Prime Minister towards the end of September. The general election held in December 1903 resulted in the return of three nearly equal parties, and Deakin was forced to resign in April 1904 but came back into power in July 1905 with Lyne in his old position.

In April 1907 Lyne accompanied Deakin to the colonial conference and endeavoured to persuade the English politicians that they were foolish in clinging to their policy of free trade. Deakin and Lyne returned to Australia in June, and when Sir John Forrest resigned his position as Treasurer at the end of July 1907, Lyne succeeded him.

Fusion Government

In November 1908, the Labor party withdrew its support from Deakin, and Fisher succeeded him and held office until June 1909 when Deakin and Cook joined forces and formed the so-called "Fusion" government. Lyne accused Deakin of betrayal, and thereafter sat as an independent Protectionist. His bitter denunciations of his one-time friend continued during the 11 months the ministry lasted but Deakin did not respond. The Labor Party came in with a large majority in the April 1910 election and Lyne was elected as a pro-Labor independent. However, Lyne lost his seat in the May 1913 election when the Labor Party lost to the opposition Commonwealth Liberal Party.

Lyne died in the Sydney suburb of Double Bay, a few months afterwards. He was twice married, and was survived by one son and three daughters of the first marriage and by Lady Lyne and her daughter.


Lyne was more of a politician than a statesman, always inclined to take a somewhat narrow view of politics. He did some good work when Premier of New South Wales by putting through the Early Closing bill (regulating shopping hours), the Industrial Arbitration bill, and bringing in graduated death duties; but even these measures were part of his bargain with the Labor party. He was tall and vigorous, in his younger days a typical Australian bushman. He knew every one in his electorate and was a good friend to all. He was bluff and frank and it was said of him that he was a man whose hand went instinctively into his pocket when any appeal was made to him. In Parliament he was courageous and a vigorous administrator. Scarcely an orator he was a good tactician, and though overshadowed by greater men like Barton, Reid and Deakin, his views had much influence in his time. In his early political life he was a great advocate of irrigation, and in federal politics he had much to do with the shaping of the policy of protection eventually adopted by the Commonwealth.

His reputation has been badly affected by Alfred Deakin's description of him as "a crude, sleek, suspicious, blundering, short-sighted, backblocks politician".


Lyne had been created KCMG in 1900.

See also

* Australian Commonwealth ministries 1901-2004


NAME=Jennings, Patrick Alfred
SHORT DESCRIPTION=New South Wales politician and Premier
DATE OF BIRTH= 6 April 1844
PLACE OF BIRTH= Apslawn, Tasmania
DATE OF DEATH= 3 August 1913

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • William Lyne — Sir William Lyne Sir William John Lyne (6 avril 1844 3 août 1913) était un homme politique australien qui fut premier ministre de Nouvelle Galles du Sud et membre du premier gouvernement fédéral australien. Sommaire …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William Lyne Wilson — (* 3. Mai 1843 in Charles Town, West Virginia; † 17. Oktober 1900 in Lexington, Virginia) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Anwalt aus West Virginia. Ferner war er ein Bourbon Democrat. Werdegang William Lyne Wilson wurde am 3. Mai 1843 in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Lyne Wilson — Infobox US Cabinet official name=William Lyne Wilson image width= order=37th title=United States Postmaster General term start=April 4, 1895 term end=March 5, 1897 predecessor=Wilson S. Bissell successor=James A. Gary birth date=May 3, 1843 birth …   Wikipedia

  • Lyne (surname) — Lyne is a surname, and may refer to*Adrian Lyne, British film maker *Andrew Lyne, British physicist *Anne Lyne, Catholic saint *Becky Lyne, British middle distance runner *Joseph Leycester Lyne, British Anglican preacher and promoter of… …   Wikipedia

  • William Wilson — (or variations such as Bill or Willie) may refer to: Contents 1 Politics 1.1 UK politics 1.2 United States politics …   Wikipedia

  • William Holman — William Arthur Holman (4 août 1871 – 6 juin 1934) fut le dix neuvième premier ministre de Nouvelle Galles du Sud en Australie. Membre du parti travailliste australien, il abandonna celui ci pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, en désaccord avec… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William McKell — William John McKell Sir William McKell Sir William John McKell (26 septembre 1891 11 janvier 1985), était un homme politique australien qui fut Premier Ministre de Nouvelle Galles du Sud de 1939 à 1947, puis douzième gouverneur général d… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William L. Wilson — William Lyne Wilson (* 3. Mai 1843 in Charles Town, Jefferson County, Virginia; † 17. Oktober 1900 in Lexington, Virginia) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Anwalt aus West Virginia. Innerhalb der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Forster — (16 octobre 1818 30 octobre 1882) était un poète et un homme politique australien, qui fut le 4e premier ministre de Nouvelle Galles du Sud du 27 octobre 1859 au 9 mars 1860. Jeunesse Forster est né à Madras, en Inde. Il était le fils de Thomas… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William L. Wilson — may refer to:*Bill Wilson (Scottish politician) (born 1963 as William L. Wilson) *William Lyne Wilson (1843 ndash;1900), United States Postmaster General *William L. Wilson (Rice University) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”