Reciprocity (social psychology)
- Reciprocity (social psychology)
In social psychology, reciprocity refers to responding to a positive action with another positive action, and responding to a negative action with another negative one. Positive reciprocal actions differ from altruistic actions as those only follow from other positive actions and they differ from social gift giving in that those are not actions taken with the hope or expectation of future positive responses.
Reciprocal actions are important to social psychology as they can help explain the maintenance of social norms. If a sufficient proportion of the population interprets the breaking of a social norm by another as a hostile action and if these people are willing to take (potentially costly) action to punish the rule-breaker then this can maintain the norm in the absence of formal sanctions. The punishing action may range from negative words to complete social ostracism.
In public good experiments, behavioral economists have demonstrated that the potential for reciprocal actions by players increases the rate of contribution to the public good, providing evidence for the importance of reciprocity in social situations (Fehr and Gatcher, 2003).
In mathematics, game theory describes reciprocity as a highly effective Tit for Tat strategy for the iterated prisoner's dilemma.
In the animal world reciprocity exists in the social behaviour of Baboons.Male Baboons will form alliances with one another in order that one baboon will distract the Alpha-male, who has monopolized reproductive females, and the other will copulate with a female. The roles will be reversed later for "payback."
* Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
* Reciprocity (social and political philosophy)
*cite journal | first = Ernst | last = Fehr | coauthors = and Simon Gächter | year = 2000 | month = Summer | title = Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity | journal = Journal of Economic Perspectives | volume = 14 | issue = 3 | pages = 159–181 | id = ISSN 0895-3309
Look at other dictionaries:
Reciprocity (social and political philosophy) — The social norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people will respond to each other in similar ways responding to gifts and kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own, and responding to harmful, hurtful acts from others… … Wikipedia
Social psychology (psychology) — Social psychology is the scientific study of how people s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). By this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of… … Wikipedia
Reciprocity — may refer to: Reciprocity (Canadian politics) Reciprocity (photography), the relationship between the intensity of the light and duration of the exposure that result in identical exposure Traffic violations reciprocity where non resident drivers… … Wikipedia
Reciprocity (cultural anthropology) — In cultural anthropology and sociology, reciprocity is a way of defining people s informal exchange of goods and labour; that is, people s informal economic systems. It is the basis of most non market economies. Since virtually all humans live in … Wikipedia
Social dilemma — Social dilemmas are situations in which private interests are at odds with collective interests. Such situations arise because people frequently attach more weight to their short term selfish interests than to the long term interests of the group … Wikipedia
Social influence — occurs when an individual s thoughts, feelings or actions are affected by other people. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. In… … Wikipedia
Social identity — is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turnercite book|last=Tajfel|first=Henri|coauthors=Turner, John|title=The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations|editor=Austin, William G.; Worchel, Stephen|publisher=Brooks Cole|location=Monterey,… … Wikipedia
Social exchange theory — is a social psychological and sociological perspective and that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. Social exchange theory posits that all human relationships are formed by the use of a… … Wikipedia
Social preferences — are the less popular areas in behavioral and experimental economics and social psychology that study interpersonal altruism, fairness, reciprocity, and inequity aversion.The term social preferences incorporates obstreperous (esp the Fehr Schmidt… … Wikipedia
Social productivity — The term social is derived from the Latin word socius , which as a noun means an associate, ally, companion, business partner or comrade . The adjectival form socialis refers to a bond between people (such as marriage) or to their collective or… … Wikipedia