Gulf languages

Gulf languages

Gulf is a proposed native North American language family composed of the Muskogean languages, along with four extinct language isolates. The four isolates are the Atakapa language [aqp] , Chitimacha language [ctm] , Natchez language [ncz] and Tunica language [tun] .

Gulf was proposed as a language family by Mary Haas (Haas 1951, 1952), but the family has not been rigorously established by the comparative method. Conservative historical linguists such as Lyle Campbell (Campbell and Mithun 1979, Campbell 1997) list the relationship as unproven.

However, a number of specialists on Muskogean languages, including Mary Haas and Pamela Munro Munro (1995) have regarded the hypothesis of a Gulf family of languages as promising. A difficulty in evaluating the hypothesis is the lack of available data. Most of the data on Chitimacha and Natchez is still unpublished and held in archives.


*Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Campbell, Lyle and Marianne Mithun. 1979. The Languages of Native America: A Historical and Comparative Assessment. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
* Haas, Mary. (1951). "The Proto-Gulf word for water (with notes on Siouan-Yuchi)." International Journal of American Linguistics 17: 71-9.
* Haas, Mary. (1952). The Proto-Gulf word for 'land' (with notes on Proto-Siouan). International Journal of American Linguistics 18:238-240.
*Munro, Pamela. 1995. Gulf and Yuki-Gulf. Anthropological Linguistics. 36:125-222.

ee also

* Atakapa
* Chitimacha
* Muskogean languages
* Natchez
* Tunica-Biloxi

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Huon Gulf languages — Infobox Language family name=Huon Gulf region=Northern New Guinea familycolor=Austronesian fam2=Malayo Polynesian (MP) fam3=Nuclear MP fam4=Central Eastern MP fam5=Eastern MP fam6=Oceanic fam7=Western Oceanic fam8=North New Guinea child1=Markham… …   Wikipedia

  • North Huon Gulf languages — North Huon Gulf Geographic distribution: Huon Gulf, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea Linguistic classification: Austronesian Malayo Polynesian Oceanic …   Wikipedia

  • South Huon Gulf languages — Infobox Language family name=South Huon Gulf region=Huon Gulf, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea familycolor=Austronesian fam2=Malayo Polynesian (MP) fam3=Nuclear MP fam4=Central Eastern MP fam5=Eastern MP fam6=Oceanic fam7=Western Oceanic… …   Wikipedia

  • Inland Gulf languages — Inland Gulf Geographic distribution: New Guinea Linguistic classification: Trans–New Guinea Inland Gulf Subdivisions: Ipiko Minanibai The Inland Gulf languages are a fami …   Wikipedia

  • Languages of Canada — Languages of Canada[1] Official language(s) English (58%) and French (22%) Indigenous language(s) Abenaki, A …   Wikipedia

  • Gulf Breeze High School — is a secondary school currently located at 675 Gulf Breeze Parkway in Gulf Breeze, Florida, and is part of the Santa Rosa County School District. The school was originally known as Gulf Breeze Senior High before Gulf Breeze Middle School had… …   Wikipedia

  • Gulf War — This article is about the war in 1990/91. For other wars of that name, see Persian Gulf War (disambiguation). Operation Desert Storm redirects here. For the video game, see Operation: Desert Storm (video game). Gulf War …   Wikipedia

  • Gulf of Papua — The Gulf of Papua is a 400 kilometer wide region on the south shore of New Guinea. Some of New Guinea s largest rivers, such as the Fly River, Turama River, Kikori River and Purari River, flow into the gulf, making it a large delta. While the… …   Wikipedia

  • Languages of Muslim countries — Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur an to the Muhammad literally, word for word, in the Arabic language.Thus, Arabic is regarded as the holy language of Islam. However, there is no single Muslim language per se, as Islam, the faith of… …   Wikipedia

  • Gulf of Bothnia — The Gulf of Bothnia ( fi. Pohjanlahti; sv. Bottniska viken, i.e. Bottenviken + Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It is situated between Finland s west coast and Sweden s east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”