- Gulf languages
Gulf is a proposed native
North American language family composed of the Muskogean languages, along with four extinct language isolates. The four isolates are the Atakapa language[aqp] , Chitimacha language[ctm] , Natchez language [ncz] and Tunica language[tun] .
Gulf was proposed as a language family by Mary Haas (Haas 1951, 1952), but the family has not been rigorously established by the comparative method. Conservative historical linguists such as
Lyle Campbell(Campbell and Mithun 1979, Campbell 1997) list the relationship as unproven.
However, a number of specialists on
Muskogean languages, including Mary Haasand Pamela MunroMunro (1995) have regarded the hypothesis of a Gulf family of languages as promising. A difficulty in evaluating the hypothesis is the lack of available data. Most of the data on Chitimachaand Natchezis still unpublished and held in archives.
*Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*Campbell, Lyle and Marianne Mithun. 1979. The Languages of Native America: A Historical and Comparative Assessment. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
* Haas, Mary. (1951). "The Proto-Gulf word for water (with notes on Siouan-Yuchi)." International Journal of American Linguistics 17: 71-9.
* Haas, Mary. (1952). The Proto-Gulf word for 'land' (with notes on Proto-Siouan). International Journal of American Linguistics 18:238-240.
*Munro, Pamela. 1995. Gulf and Yuki-Gulf. Anthropological Linguistics. 36:125-222.
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