Te Āti Awa

Te Āti Awa

Infobox Iwi
iwi_name =Te Āti Awa

iwi_location =Taranaki and Wellington
waka =Tokomaru, Aotea
population =17,000
united_tribes_no. =
url =

Te Āti Awa is a Māori iwi with traditional bases in the Taranaki and Wellington regions of New Zealand. Approximately 17,000 people registered their affiliation to Te Āti Awa in 2001, with around 10,000 in Taranaki, 2,000 in Wellington and around 5,000 of unspecified regional location.

Geographical Landmarks

Te Āti Awa recognises Taranaki as their ancestral homeland. Mt Taranaki dominates the regional landscape and is sacred to many of the eight local iwi, including Te Āti Awa. The iwi also maintains a cultural association with the Waitara River in the Taranaki region. Historical "tapu" in the Wellington region include the Hutt River delta and Lowry Bay.



Awanuiarangi is recognised as the founding ancestor of Te Āti Awa. According to Te Āti Awa traditions, he was the product of a union between Rongoueroa and Tamarau, a spirit ancestor. Awanuiarangi is also an ancestor of Ngāti Awa in the Bay of Plenty. However, while Ngāti Awa trace their ancestry to the "Mataatua" canoe, Te Āti Awa trace their origins to the Tokomaru canoe.

In several North Island traditions, Awanuiarangi originally settled in the Northland region, but migrated southwards with his people following disputes with other northern iwi. Some migrants settled in the Bay of Plenty, some of whom gave rise to the Ngāti Awa iwi. Others settled in Taranaki, some of whom formed Te Āti Awa.

Warfare and Migration

The introduction of muskets to the Māori in the early 1800s saw a marked increase in tribal war campaigns. In 1819, Ngā Puhi began a campaign of conquest throughout the North Island, newly equipped with European firearms. Partly due to tensions with northern Waikato iwi, Te Āti Awa and other Taranaki iwi joined forces with Ngā Puhi. Armed with muskets, Te Ati Awa forces battled the Waikato iwi. Despite a decisive victory at Motunui in 1822, the Waikato forces eventually threatened to overtake Taranaki. This precipitated the first of four major migrations southwards.

#Te Heke Tātaramoa. The first migration from Taranaki comprised people from Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga and Te Āti Awa, all fleeing the potential threat of the Waikato forces. This first group migrated to the Kāpiti Coast.
#Te Heke Nihoputa. A second migration from Taranaki occurred around 1824, including Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Tama and Te Āti Awa. These travellers settled in the area around Wellington Harbour. In Wellington traditions, Rongoueroa married Ruarangi, son of noted Polynesian explorer Toi. Her grandson was Tara, who lent his name to the area of Wellington Harbour, which became "Te Whanganui-a-Tara" ("the great harbour of Tara").
#Te Heke Tamateuaua. In retaliation for the defeat at Motunui, Waikato and Ngāti Maniapoto forces combined and invaded the Taranaki region, eventually reaching the Ngāmotu people of Te Āti Awa. In 1832, considerable numbers of Ngāmotu moved south to Wellington, joined by some Ngāti Tama, settling at Petone with a hapu of Ngāti Mutunga, who arrived from a previous migration. In gratitude for avenging the death of one of their leaders, Ngāti Mutunga gifted the area around the Hutt River delta and Lowry Bay to the Ngāmotu people.
#Te Heke Paukena and the Kūititanga Battle. A fourth migration from Taranaki also took place in 1834, after a battle with Ngāti Toa. This preceded the breakdown of relations between tribal settlements on the Kāpiti Coast, and in 1835, Ngāti Mutunga and sections of Ngāti Tama transferred control of their lands to Te Āti Awa and other Taranaki tribes. In 1839, Ngāti Raukawa, who were fairly recent arrivals to the Wellington region, attacked Te Āti Awa settlements along Wellington Harbour, with support from Ngāti Toa.

Arrival of European Settlers

In that same year, newly arrived English settlers brought increased demand for land around the Wellington area. Land was initially bought from local Māori tribes; some of these land purchases would later come into dispute. A later practice saw deeds obtained from local Māori tribes allowing for the reservation of 'tenths' of land for Māori use, or in exchange for land elsewhere.

European settlements began to encroach on ancestral Taranaki lands in 1841. This led to a migration of some Wellington Te Āti Awa back to Taranaki in 1848, led by Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, who opposed the sale of tribal lands to European settlers. Conflicts over land sales arose between various sub-tribes and with European settlers. In 1860, Kīngi refused an ultimatum from Crown troops to vacate his land, after it was offered to the Crown by another chief. Such action led to the first shots of the New Zealand Land Wars.

Land Wars

Te Āti Awa in Taranaki received widespread support from other Māori in their battle with the Crown, but were ultimately defeated. Under the "1863 New Zealand Settlements Act" and the "1863 Suppression of Rebellion Act", Te Āti Awa were branded 'rebels' and the Crown confiscated 68,500 hectares of Te Āti Awa land in Taranaki. This severely undermined the political and social structures of the iwi.

Government Redress

The 20th century saw several attempts by the New Zealand Government to redress past actions towards Te Āti Awa. This included recommendations for a settlement monetary sum; a figure was eventually reached by the Government, but without consultation with Taranaki tribes. The "Taranaki Maori Claims Act of 1944" also indicated an early full settlement between the Crown and local tribes, but this was disputed by various Taranaki iwi. The Waitangi Tribunal reported on Taranaki claims in 1996.cite book | publisher = Waitangi Tribunal | authorlink = http://www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz | title = The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi | date = 1996| location = Wellington | url = http://www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz/reports/summary.asp?reportid={3FECC540-D049-4DE6-A7F0-C26BCCDAB345} ]

Taranaki Claims

Te Āti Awa in Taranaki and the Crown signed a Heads of Agreement in 1999cite web | publisher = New Zealand Government Executive | title = Heads of Agreement between the Crown and Te Atiawa | date = 1999-12-01 | url = http://executive.govt.nz/96-99/minister/graham/te_atiawa/index.html | format = HTML | accessdate = 2008-09-25] , which sets out a broad agreement in anticipation of developing a formal, legally binding Deed of Settlement. The Heads of Agreement indicates a public apology for land confiscations in Taranaki, recognition of cultural associations with sacred geographical landmarks and land areas, restoration of tribal access to traditional food gathering areas, monetary compensation totalling NZ$34 million and commercial redress for economic loss due to land confiscation. The Agreement covers claims made by Te Āti Awa in Taranaki.

Wellington Claims

In 1977, the "Wellington Tenths Trust" was established, representing Te Āti Awa land owners in Wellington. The Trust lodged claims with the Waitangi Tribunal over disputed land ownership purchases from 1839, and the Tribunal issued its findings on these claims in 2003, cite book | publisher = Waitangi Tribunal | authorlink = http://www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz - | title = Te Whanganui a Tara me ona Takiwa: Report on the Wellington District | date = 2003 | location = Wellington | url = http://www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz/reports/summary.asp?reportid={DE4CD4BD-4080-4EA2-BBC3-27F8DA160FD7} ] along with those of other iwi in the Wellington region. The Crown and Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika, a collective that comprises people from Te Āti Awa and other Taranaki iwi whose ancestors migrated to Wellington, signed a Deed of Settlement in 2008 which settled those claims. cite web | publisher = Office of Treaty Settlements | authorlink = http://www.ots.govt.nz | title = Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika Settlement Summary | date = 2008-08-19 | url = http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/Livearticle.asp?ArtID=1219027573 | format = HTML | accessdate = 2008-09-25]

Te Āti Awa today

Te Āti Awa in Taranaki and Wellington maintain strong connections with each other; close ties are also maintained with distantly related Ngāti Awa. As an iwi, Te Āti Awa continue to seek redress for past injustices. Organisations are established in Taranaki and Wellington that represent the political and economic interests of the iwi.

Famous Te Āti Awa

*Wiremu Kingi


Other sources

*cite web | author = Adds, Peter | title = Te Āti Awa of Taranaki | publisher = Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand | url = http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/TeAtiAwaTaranaki/en | date = 2006-09-26 | accessdate = 2007-04-11

*cite web | author = Love, Morris | title = Te Āti Awa of Wellington | publisher = Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand | url = http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/TeAtiAwaWellington/en | date = 2006-12-21 | accessdate = 2007-04-11

External links

* [http://www.teatiawatrust.co.nz/ Te Ati Awa Trust Board]
* [http://www.whakarongotai.com/ Te Runanga o Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai Inc.]
* [http://www.atiawa.com/ Te Runanganui o Taranaki Whanui]

ee also

*List of Māori iwi

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ngāti Awa — Iwi of New Zealand Pūtauaki, ancestral mountain of Ngāti Awa …   Wikipedia

  • List of Māori iwi — The following is a list of the Māori iwi of New Zealand. Contents 1 Iwi 2 See also 3 External links 3.1 Iwi websites …   Wikipedia

  • Ngāti Tūwharetoa — Iwi of New Zealand Eastern Lake Taupo, Turangi to Taupo …   Wikipedia

  • Ngāti Toa — Iwi of New Zealand Rohe (location) …   Wikipedia

  • Ngā Rauru — Iwi of New Zealand Rohe (location) Wanganui Waka (canoe) Te Rangiuamutu, Aotea Popul …   Wikipedia

  • Wiremu Kingi — Infobox Person image size = 200px caption = Wiremu Kingi birth name = Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake birth date = 1795 birth place = death date = 13 January 1882 death place = Kaingaru near Waitara death cause = resting place = resting place… …   Wikipedia

  • Ngāti Apa — Iwi of New Zealand Rohe (location) Manawatu Waka (canoe) Kurahaupō Population 3021 …   Wikipedia

  • Ngāti Ruanui — Iwi of New Zealand Rohe (location) Taranaki Waka (canoe) Kurahaupō, Tākitimu, Aotea …   Wikipedia

  • Ngāti Rarua — Iwi of New Zealand 250px Rohe (location) Ngāti Rarua is a Māori iwi of New Zealand. Their tribal lands (rohe) are in the upper South Island, overlapping those of Ngāti Koata, Ngāti Tama, Ngāti …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Iwi der Maori — Die ist eine Liste der iwi der Māori Neuseelands. Alternative Namen für manche iwi sind in Klammern angegeben: Iwi Die Nummer hinter dem Namen nennt die United Tribes Nummer. Name (Nr) Rohe (Ort) waka (Kanu) Anzahl (2001) Āti Awa (19) siehe Te… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”