- Trust company
A trust company is a
corporation, especially a commercial bank, organized to perform the fiduciaryfunctions of trusts and agencies. It is normally owned by one of three types of structures: an independent partnership, a bank or a law firm, each of which specializes in being a trustee of various kinds of trusts and in managing estates.
The "trust" name refers to the ability of the institution's trust department to act as a
trustee- someone who administers financial assets on behalf of another. The assets are typically held in the form of a trust, a legal instrument that spells out the beneficiaries and what the money can be spent for.
A trustee will manage investments, keep records, manage assets and prepare court accountings, paying bills and (depending on the nature of the trust) medical expenses, charitable gifts, inheritances or other distributions of income and principal.
A trust company can be named as an executor or personal representative in a last will and testament. The responsibilities of an
executorin settling the estate of a deceased person include collecting debts, settling claims for debtand taxes, accounting for assets to the courts and distributing wealth to beneficiaries.
Estate planning is usually also offered to allow clients to structure their affairs so as to minimise inheritance taxes and
probatecosts. In the United States, one of the primary profit centers for a trust company is commissions earned from selling various types of insurance products designed to minimize the estate tax charged to a person.
A trust officer may provide guardian and conservator services, acting as guardian of a minor's property until adulthood or as conservator of the estate of an adult unable to handle his or her own finances..
A trust department provides investment management, including
securities marketadvice, investment strategyand portfolio management, management of real estateand safekeepingof valuables.
The trust company may also provide
escrowservices, invest educationor retirementfunds or hold Starker exchangeproceeds where cash from the sale of US real estate is held in trust (for taxpurposes) until used to buy replacement land.
Corporate trust services
Trust companies may also perform corporate trust services. Corporate trust services are services which assist, in the fiduciary capacity, in the administration of the corporation's debt. For example, in a normal bank loan, the lender normally lends money to the company (usually with conditions called "covenants"), accepts payments from the company monthly, and watches the company to ensure that it is meeting all its agreed upon conditions (for example, that its ratio of profits to expenses stays above a certain amount). However most large companies borrow money not from banks, but by selling bonds. When the company sells bonds, a corporate trust company can handle the acceptance of payments from the company (which it passes on to the bondholders), and is the entity which monitors the company to ensure it is responding to covenants. In the event of the company's bankruptcy, the corporate trust company fights to get as much money back as it can for the bondholders.
Examples of corporate trust companies include
Deutsche Bank AG, Pentera Trust Company Limited, Bank of New York, Wells Fargo, US Bank, Commerce Bancorp NJ, HSBC Bank USA, Law Debenture, Union Bank of California, [http://www.trustmoore.com Trustmoore] , [http://www.amicorp.com Amicorp] , [http://www.vistra.com Vistra Trust & Corporate Services] , [http://www.bbt.com BB&T] ,
A living trust appoints a trustee to manage assets during the lifetime of the original
settlor; this private arrangement allows for distribution of wealth even if the client becomes incapacitated or unable to act personally. Upon death, the trust controls how and when assets are used and distributed; this can be a substitute for appointment of a legal guardian or conservator to handle assets inherited by young children or others unable to act on their own behalf.
By bypassing the probate process through which a will is handled by the judicial system, a trust may reduce costs or delays, manage real estate, provide more privacy than a bequest in a will and offer possible tax advantages.
A testamentary trust is one created by being written into a will to provide for management of assets to be inherited by beneficiaries.
A revocable trust is one in which assets are owned by the trustee, but the settlor reserves a power of revocation. Because the settlor can revoke the trust and therefore maintains control over the property, there are normally no tax advantages involved in this arrangement.
=Irrevocable trusts= An irrevocable trust is often used for charitable purposes by organisations or
millionaires ("high net worthindividuals") as well as for the management of inheritances. As the benefactorrelinquishes control of the assets upon creating the trust, any charitable activities incur tax benefits even while the assets are invested to provide a financial endowment for later use by the charitable foundation. This approach has been successfully used by foundations established by well-known and wealthy families such as the Ford ( automobile), Carnegie(steel) and Arthur Vining Davis(aluminium) family.
A trust may also be an integral part of an institution founded by such an individual or group, created to ensure its long-term financial
Standard Oil Company
National Linseed Oil Trust
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