- Limited liability
Limited liability is a concept whereby a person's financial
liabilityis limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited liability. A shareholderin a limited companyis not personally liable for any of the debts of the company, other than for the value of his investment in that company. The same is true for the members of a limited liability partnershipand the limited partners in a limited partnership. [Hannigan 2003] By contrast, sole proprietorsand partners in general partnershipsare each liable for all the debts of the business (unlimited liability).
Although a shareholder's liability for the company's actions is limited, the shareholder may still be liable for its own acts. For example, the directors of small companies (who are frequently also shareholders) are often required to give personal guarantees of the company's debts to those lending to the company. They will then be liable for those debts in the event that the company cannot pay, although the other shareholders will not be so liable. This is known as co-signing.
UK, it became more straightforward to incorporate a joint stock companyfollowing the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844, although investors in such companies carried unlimited liability until the Limited Liability Act 1855. There was a degree of public and legislative distaste for a limitation of liability, with fears that it would cause a drop in standards of probity. [Shannon (1931)] [Saville (1956)] [Amsler "et al." (1981)] The 1855 Act allowed limited liability to companies of more than 25 members (shareholders). Insurancecompanies were excluded from the Act, though it was standard practice for insurance contracts to exclude action against individual members. Limited liability for insurance companies was allowed by the Companies Act 1862. The minimum number of members necessary for registration as a limited company was reduced to seven by the Companies Act 1856. Limited companies in England and Wales now require only one member. [Mayson "et al." (2005), "p."55]
Similar statutory regimes were in place in
Franceand in the majority of the U.S.states by 1860. By the final quarter of the nineteenth century, most European countries had adopted the principle of limited liability.
In the UK there was initially a widespread belief that a corporation needed to demonstrate its
creditworthinessby having its shares only partly paid, as where shares are partly paid, the investor would be liable for the remainder of the nominal value in the event that the company could not pay its debts. Shares with nominal values of up to £1,000 were therefore subscribed to with only a small payment, leaving even a limited liability investor with a potentially crushing liability and restricting investment to the very wealthy. During the Overend Gurney crisis(1866-1867) and the Long Depression(1873-1896) many companies fell into insolvencyand the unpaid portion of the shares fell due. Further, the extent to which small and medium investors were excluded from the market was admitted and, from the 1880s onwards, shares were more commonly fully-paid. [Jefferys (1954)]
Although it was admitted that those who were mere investors ought not to be liable for debts arising from the management of a corporation, throughout the late nineteenth century there were still many arguments for unlimited liability for managers and directors on the model of the French "
société en commandite". [Lobban (1996)] Although such liability for directors is still permitted for directors of English companies, its abolition is planned as of 2006. [DTI (2005)] Further, it became increasingly common from the end of the nineteenth century for shareholders to be directors, protecting themselves from liability.
In 1989, the
European Unionenacted its Twelfth Council Company Law Directive, [ [http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31989L0667:EN:HTML 89/667/EEC] ] requiring that member states make available legal structures for individuals to trade with limited liability. This was implemented in England and Wales by Statutory Instrument SI 1992/1699which allowed single-member limited-liability companies. [Edwards (1998)]
Economic and social justification and criticism
Limited liability is supposed to encourage enterprise [Meiners "et al." (1979)] [Halpern "et al." (1980)] [Easterbrook & Fischel (1985)] but it has also been argued that it distorts the
free marketby allowing the entrepreneurto externalise some riskand impose it on society at large. [cite web | url=http://www.lewrockwell.com/rozeff/rozeff28.html | title=Limited Liability | author=Rozeff, M.S. | format=HTML | accessdate=2006-07-03 ] Moreover, there has been some concern that present structures favour large creditorswho are in the position to negotiate secured terms, whereas small creditors' debts are left unsecured. There have been calls to restrict limited liability to only non-managing investors but, as of 2006, these have been resisted in the UK. [DTI (2000)] The general legal response to such concerns has been to make directors liable for any dishonesty. [Ohrnial (1982)]
There is evidence that shares in
public companieswould be at a disadvantage if liability were unlimited [Halpern "et al." (1980)] and the experience of partly-paid shares in the nineteenth century ("supra") seems to confirm this. [Mayson "et al." (2005), "p."57] A single counter point, limited to a narrow span of time and a single company in a growth economy, existed in the 1950s where there was a healthy market in unlimited liability American Expressshares. [Grossman (1995)]
anarcho-capitalist libertarianand Austrian economist Murray N. Rothbard, in his " Power and Market" (1970), defended limited-liability, stating,
Finally, the question may be raised: Are corporations themselves mere grants of monopoly privilege? Some advocates of the free market were persuaded to accept this view by Walter Lippmann's "The Good Society". It should be clear from previous discussion, however, that corporations are not at all monopolistic privileges; they are free associations of individuals pooling their capital. On the purely free market, such individuals would simply announce to their creditors that their liability is limited to the capital specifically invested in the corporation, and that beyond this their personal funds are not liable for debts, as they would be under a partnership arrangement. It then rests with the sellers and lenders to this corporation to decide whether or not they will transact business with it. If they do, then they proceed at their own risk. Thus, the government does not grant corporations a privilege of limited liability; anything announced and freely contracted for in advance is a right of a free individual, not a special privilege. It is not necessary that governments grant charters to corporations.
U.S.lawyers have suggested that, while limited liability towards creditors is socially beneficial in facilitating investment, the privilege ought not to extend to liability in tortfor environmental disasters or personal injury. [Hansmann & Kraakman (1991)] [Grundfest (1992)] [Grossman (1995)]
Types of companies
Limited liability company
Limited liability partnership
*Saloman v. Saloman & Co.
* [http://www.lewrockwell.com/rozeff/rozeff28.html Limited Liability by Michael S. Rozeff]
* [http://www.qub.ac.uk/mgt/efirg/Corporation.pdf The History of the Corporate Business Firm]
*cite journal | author=Amsler, C.F. "et al." | year=1981 | title=Thoughts of some British economists on early limited liability and corporate legislation | journal=History of Political Economy | volume=13 | pages=774–93
*cite journal | author=Bagehot, W. | title=The New Joint Stock Companies Act | journal=
The Economist| volume=25 | year=1867 | pages=(31 Aug) 982–3 , reprinted in cite book | author=St John-Stevas, N. (ed.) | title=Collected Works of Walter Bagehot | publisher=Economist Publications | location=London | isbn=0-85058-083-8 , "ix", "p."406.
*cite book | author=Davis, J.S. | title=Essays in the Earlier History of American Corporations | edition=vols. 1–2 | location=Cambridge, MA | publisher=Harvard University Press | year=1917
*cite book | author=Carus-Wilson, E.M. (ed.) | year=1954 | title=Essays in Economic History | edition=vol.1 | location=London | publisher=Edward Arnold
*cite book | author=Department of Trade and Industry (UK) | year=2000 | location=London | title=Modern Company Law for a Competitive Economy: Developing the Framework | id=URN 00/656
*cite web | author=- | title=Company Law Reform Bill - White Paper (Cm 6456) | year=2005 | url=http://www.dti.gov.uk/bbf/co-law-reform-bill/white-paper/page22800.html | accessdate=2006-07-03
*cite journal | author=Easterbrook, F.H & Fischel, D.R. | year=1985 | title=Limited liability and the corporation | volume=52 | journal=University of Chicago Law Review | pages=89 | doi=10.2307/1599572
*cite journal | author=Edwards, V. | title=The EU Twelfth Company Law Directive | journal=Company Law | volume=19 | pages=211 | year=1998
*cite book | author=Freedman, C.E. | title=Joint-Stock Enterprise in France 1807–1867: From Privileged Company to Modern Corporation | location=Chapel Hill | publisher=University of North Carolina Press | year=1979
*cite journal | author=Grossman, P.Z. | title=The market for shares of companies with unlimited liability: the case of American Express | journal=Journal of Legal Studies | volume=24 | pages=63 | doi=10.1086/467952 | year=1995
*cite journal | author=Grundfest, J.A. | title=The limited future of unlimited liability: a capital markets perspective | journal=Yale Law Review | volume=102 | pages=387 | doi=10.2307/796841 | year=1992
*cite journal | author=Halpern, P. "et al." | year=1980 | title=An economic analysis of limited liability in corporation law | journal=University of Toronto Law Journal | volume=30 | pages=117 | doi=10.2307/825483
*cite book | author=Hannigan, B. | title=Company Law | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2003
*cite journal | author=Hansmann, H. & Kraakman, R. | title=Toward unlimited shareholder liability for corporate torts | year=1991 | journal=Yale Law Review | volume=100 | pages=1879 | doi=10.2307/796812
*cite journal | author=Hickson, C.R. & Turner, J.D. | title=The trading of unlimited liability bank shares in nineteenth-century Ireland: The Bagheot Hypothesis | journal=Journal of Economic History | volume=63 | year=2003 | pages=931–958 | doi=10.1017/S0022050703002493
*cite book | author=Hunt, B.C. | title=The Development of the Business Corporation in England, 1800–1867 | location=Cambridge, MA | publisher=Harvard University Press | year=1936
*Jefferys, J.B. (1954) "The denomination and character of shares, 1855-1885", in Carus-Wilson "Op. cit.", "pp"344-57
*cite journal | author=Livermore, S. | title=Journal of Political Economy | volume=43 | year=1935 | pages=674–687
*cite journal | author=Lobban, M. | title=Corporate identity and limited liability in France and England 1825-67 | year=1996 | volume=25 | journal=Anglo-American Law Review | pages=397
*cite book | author=Mayson, S.W "et al." | title=Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law | year=2005 | edition=22nd ed. | publisher=Oxford University Press | location=London | isbn=0-19-928531-4
*cite journal | author=Meiners, R.E. "et al." | year=1979 | title=Piercing the veil of limited liability | journal=Delaware Journal of Corporate Law | volume=4 | pages=351
*cite book | author=Orhnial, T (ed.) | year=1982 | title=Limited Liability and the Corporation | location=London | publisher=Croom Helm | isbn=0-7099-1919-0
*cite journal | author=Saville, J. | title=Sleeping partnership and limited liability, 1850-1856 | journal=Economic History Review | volume=8 | year=1956 | pages=418–33
*Select Committee on the Limited Liability Acts (1867) "Parliamentary Papers" (329) X.393, "p."31
*cite journal | author=Shannon, H.A. | title=The coming of general limited liability | journal=Economic History | volume=2 | year=1931 | pages=267–91 , reprinted in Carus-Wilson "Op. cit.", "pp"358-79
*cite journal | title=The first five thousand limited companies and their duration | journal=Economic History | volume=3 | year=1932 | pages=421 | author=-
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