- Hip replacement
Hip replacement, also hip
arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the hipjoint is replaced by a prosthetic implant. Such joint replacement orthopaedic surgerygenerally is conducted to relieve arthritis painor fix severe physical joint damage as part of the hip fracture treatment.
The earliest recorded attempts at hip replacement (Gluck T, 1891), which were carried out in Germany, used ivory to replace the
femoral head(the ball on the femur).cite journal |author=Gomez PF, Morcuende JA |title=Early attempts at hip arthroplasty--1700s to 1950s |journal=Iowa Orthop J |volume=25 |issue= |pages=25–9 |year=2005 |pmid=16089067 |doi= |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1888777#R13]
In 1960 a Burmese orthopaedic surgeon, Dr.
San Baw( 29 June 1922— 7 December 1984), pioneered the use of ivoryhip prosthesesto replace ununited fractures of the neck of femur("hip bones"), when he first used an ivory prosthesis to replace the fractured hip bone of an 83 year old Burmese Buddhistnun, Daw Punya.cite web |url=http://www.asianart.com/articles/ivory/index.html |title=Daniel Stiles: Ivory Carving in Myanmar |accessdate=2007-11-26 |format= |work=] This was done while Dr. San Baw was the chief of orthopaedic surgery at Mandalay General Hospital in Mandalay, Burma. Dr. San Baw used over 300 ivory hip replacements from the 1960s to 1980s. He presented a paper entitled "Ivory hip replacements for ununited fractures of the neck of femur" at the conference of the British Orthopaedic Associationheld in London in September 1969. An 88% success rate was discerned in that Dr. San Baw's patients ranging from the ages of 24 to 87 were able to walk, squat, ride a bicycle and play football a few weeks after their fractured hip bones were replaced with ivory prostheses. Ivory may have been used because it was cheaper than metal at that time in Burma and also was thought to have good biomechanical properties including "biological bonding" of ivory with the human tissues nearby. An extract from Dr San Baw's paper, which he presented at the British Orthopaedic Association's Conference in 1969, is published in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British edition), February 1970. With modern hip replacement surgery, one can expect to walk, using crutches for support or even just a cane for balance, within a week.
The modern artificial joint owes much to the work of
John Charnleyat Wrightington Hospital; his work in the field of tribologyresulted in a design that completely replaced the other designs by the 1970s. Charnley's design consisted of three parts—
# a metal (originally stainless steel) femoral component,
teflonacetabular component which was replaced by Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethyleneor UHMWPEin 1962, both of which were fixed to the bone using
PMMA(acrylic) bone cement,and/or screws. The replacement joint, which was known as the Low Friction Arthroplasty, was lubricated with synovial fluid. The small femoral head (7/8" (22.2mm)) was chosen for its decreased wear rate; however, this has relatively poor stability (the larger the head of a replacement the less likely it is to dislocate, but the more wear debris produced due to the increased surface area). For over two decades, the Charnley Low Friction Arthroplasty design was the most used system in the world, far surpassing the other available options (like McKee and Ring). Recently the use of a polished tapered cemented hip replacement (like Exeter) and uncemented hip replacements have become more popular. Once an uncommon operation, hip replacement is now common, even among active athletes including racecar drivers Bobby Labonteand Dale Jarrett. Prince (musician)has also undergone hip replacement.Fact|date=December 2007
In a paper published August 14, 2007 in "
The Japan Times", signed by K. Rogoff, it is mentioned that "250,000 hip replacements are performed in the U.S. each year", for an average cost of $6,000.cite web |url=http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=9571 |title=Health Care Costs to Squeeze Capitalism |accessdate=2007-11-26 |format= |work=] However, that is quite contrary to what CNN-TV reported on Dec. 5, 2000, that "the average cost of hip replacement surgery is $25,000".cite web |url=http://archives.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/12/05/hip.replacement/index.html |title=CNN.com - Health - Former President Bush doing well after hip replacement surgery - December 5, 2000 |accessdate=2007-11-26 |format= |work=]
In 2008, a source quoted US$7-9,000 in India at an internationally accredited hospital; in a county in
Florida, USA, from $41,597-$56,258 was quoted. [ [http://www.floridatoday.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080928/NEWS01/809280327/1006&referrer=NEWSFRONTCAROUSEL] retrieved September 28, 2008]
Surgery costs vary from country to country, with the US typically being among the highest-priced markets, and countries like Thailand, Cuba and Argentina, among the lowest.
In the short term post-operatively, infection is a major concern. Reported rates are about 1%.Fact|date=December 2007 Deep infection will often require one or two stage revision surgery with an extended hospital stay and
antibiotics. Recurrent dislocation is another indication for revision. The rate is also about 1%.Fact|date=December 2007
In the long term, many problems relate to osteolysis from wear debris. An inflammatory process causes bone resorption and subsequent loosening or fracture often requiring [http://www.oxfordclinic.org.uk/education-research/hip/OxfordClinic-RevisionHipReplacement.php revision surgery] (external link). Very hard ceramic bearing surfaces are being used in the hope that they will have less wear and less osteolysis with better long term results. Large metal heads are also used for similar reasons, these also have excellent wear characteristics and benefit from a different mode of lubrication. A greater head neck ratio also contributes to stability. These new prostheses do not always have the long term results or reliability of established metal on poly bearings.
Total hip replacement is most commonly used to treat joint failure caused by
osteoarthritis. Other indications include rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, traumatic arthritis, protrusio acetabulicertain hip fractures, benign and malignant bone tumors, arthritis associated with Paget's disease, ankylosing spondylitisand juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The aims of the procedure are pain relief and improvement in hip function. Hip replacement is usually considered only once other therapies, such as pain medications, have failed.
There are several different incisions, defined by their relation to the gluteus medius. The approaches are posterior (Moore), lateral (Hardinge or Liverpool),cite journal |author=Pai VS |title=A comparison of three lateral approaches in primary total hip replacement |journal=Int Orthop |volume=21 |issue=6 |pages=393–8 |year=1997 |pmid=9498150 |doi= |url=http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00264/bibs/8021006/80210393.htm] antero-lateral (Watson-Jones),cite web |url=http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/anterolateral_approach_to_hip_joint_watson_jones |title=Anterolateral Approach to Hip Joint: (Watson Jones) - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics |accessdate=2007-11-26 |format= |work=] anterior (Smith-Petersen)cite web |url=http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/anterior_approach_to_the_hip_smith_peterson |title=Anterior Approach to the Hip (Smith Petersen) - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics |accessdate=2007-11-26 |format= |work=] and
greater trochanterosteotomy. There is no compelling evidence in the literature for any particular approach, but consensus of professional opinion favours either modified anterio-lateral (Hardinge) or posterior approach.Fact|date=November 2007
* The "posterior (Moore) approach" accesses the joint through the back, taking
piriformis muscleand the short external rotators off the femur. This approach gives excellent access to the acetabulum and preserves the hip abductors. Critics cite a higher dislocation rate although repair of capsule and SERs negates this risk.
* The "lateral approach" is also commonly used for hip replacement. The approach requires elevation of the hip abductors (
gluteus mediusand gluteus minimus) in order to access the joint. The abductors may be lifted up by osteotomy of the greater trochanter and reapplying it afterwards using cables (as per Charnley),Fact|date=December 2007 or may be divided at their tendinous portion, or through the functional tendon (as per Hardinge) and repaired using sutures.
* The "anterolateral approach" develops the interval between the
tensor fasciae lataeand the gluteus medius.
* The "anterior approach" utilises an interval between the sartorius and tensor fascia latae.
The double incision surgery and minimally invasive surgery seeks to reduce soft tissue damage through reducing the size of the incision. However component positioning accuracy is impaired and surgeons using these approaches are advised to use computer guidance systems.Fact|date=December 2007
A few hip replacement patients suffer chronic pain after the surgery. Usually,
X-rayand MRIcannot detect any problem with the hip joint replacement. Doctors do not know the source of the pain, or how to cure it. Generally, it is believed that such pain is caused by nerve damage during the replacement surgery.
Knowledge of the loads to which hip implants are subjected is a fundamental prerequisite for their optimal biomechanical design, long-term success, and improved rehabilitation outcomes.
In vivoload measurements are made with instrumented implants and calculations by using mathematical musculoskeletal models which are performed at different research laboratories such as at the "Julius Wolff Institut" at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. [In vivo load measurements with instrumented hip implants, [http://jwi.charite.de/en/research/instrumented_implants/hip_joint/ Julius Wolff Institut] , Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin]
Hip replacements undergo lots of cyclical stress. This was shown in an experiment by Dr. Scott Schulz PhD.
* [http://www.edheads.org/activities/hip/ Edheads Virtual Hip Surgery + Surgery Photos]
* [http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/fact/thr_report.cfm?Thread_ID=271&topcategory=Hip AAOS Hip Replacement]
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