:"For the Eleventh Century Talmudist, see Isaac Alfasi"The Rif (.

Major Rif cities include Tangier, Tetouan, Chefchaouen, Ceuta, Melilla, Nador, Al Hoceima (Also called Biya), Azghenghan, Selwan, Ajdir, Tawrirt, Taza, and El Jebha.The region is also known for its geographic diversity: mountains, sea, rivers, hills, and the like.


For many centuries before Christ, the Berbers inhabited the Rif. The region was later invaded by Phoenicians since the 3rd century BC, founding cities such as Tetouan, Melilla, and later Tangier in the 5th century BC, which later became the capital city of the kingdom of Mauretania. The cities were later invaded by Romans and then Byzantines.

In 710, Salih I ibn Mansur founded the Kingdom of Nekor in the Rif and converted most Berbers to Islam. Arabs then established more cities. By the 15th century, many Spanish Moors were exiled from Spain and most of them lived in the Rif, bringing their culture, Andalusian music, and even establishing Chefchaouen. Since then, the Rif had suffered a lot of battles between Morocco, Spain and Portugal. In 1415, Portugal invaded Ceuta, and in 1490 Spain invaded Melilla. There was period of peace after, but war between Spain and Morocco arose again in 1859 in Tetouan where Morocco was defeated. The Spanish-Moroccan conflicts didn't end. In the 20th century, under the leadership of Abd el-Krim El-Khattabi, the Moroccan guerrilla leader, The Riffian Berbers struggled against Spanish rule and aimed to free Morocco from French and Spanish colonization. Abd el-Krim later established the Republic of the Rif in 1921. The region was returned to Morocco after its independence in 1956.


Traditionally, the principal Rif tribes of the region are:
* Aith Ouriaghel near Ajdir, around Oued Ghis (Abd el-Krim's tribe)
* Gzennaya, near the source of Oued Bayu, east of the Metalsa
* Galiya, in the region of Melilla
** Mazuza
** Aith Shisher / Ait Shiker
** Aith Sidal
** Aith Bu Ifrur
** Aith Buyafar
* Kebdana, along the coast next to Oued Moulouya near the Algerian border
* Aith Said, west of Oued Kert
* Oulad Stut, an originally Arab tribe, south of the Kebdana
* Aith Bu Yahi, along Oued Moulouya south of the Oulad Stut
* Metalsa, east of the Aith Bu Yahi
* Aith Ulishk, southwest of Temsaman
* Tafersit, southwest of Temsaman
* Aith Tuzin, south of Temsaman
* Temsaman, around the town of that name, east of Al Hoceima
* Aith Amart, south of Aith Ouriaghel
* Targuist, southeast of Aith Ouriaghel
* Bokoya, in the west of Aith Ouriaghel at Al Hoceima
* Aith Itteft, east of Bades
* Aith Bu Frah, east of Aith Itteft
* Mestassa, east of Aith Bu Frah
* Mtiwa, between Mestassa and Oued Ouringa
* Beni Guemil, west of Aith Bu Frah


The Rif mountains are not part of the Atlas mountain range. The Rif mountains are home to the honeybee "Apis mellifera major".

See also

* Heads of State of Rif
* Heads of Government of Rif
* Nekor

External links

* [http://www.agraw.com/modules/Music/Rif-Music.php Rif Music]
* [http://www.agraw.com/modules/xcgal/thumbnails.php?album=1 Rif Photos]
* [http://c.1asphost.com/imazighen/rifains/algeria.htm Pictures Of Rifains]
* http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/talengids/rifijns2.htm
* http://www.gosahara.org/rb.html
* http://weecheng.com/morocco/chef/map-rif.gif
* [http://www.geopium.org/Photos/Maroc_Rif2005/Maroc_Rif2005.htm Photos of cannabis cultivation in Morocco (Rif) on www.geopium.org]
* [http://www.geopium.org/Chouvy-JIR-NOV2005-Morocco_said_to_produce_nearly_half_of_the_worlds_hashish_supply.html Recent paper on kif cultivation and hashish production and trafficking in the Rif Mountains of Morocco]
* [http://image.nadorama.com/ Pictures of Rifland]

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