Culture in modern Poland

Culture in modern Poland
Part of a series on the
Culture of Poland
Jan Matejko, Stańczyk
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After the fall of communism Polish culture and society were significantly transformed, as free of heavy government controls they were both liberalized and subject to market forces.

Contents

Historical background

Polish culture has been influenced by both Eastern and Western influences. The character of Polish art always reflected world trends. Modern Polish culture is significantly influenced by global cultural globalization.

Visual arts

See also: Visual arts of Poland, Painting of Poland, Sculpture of Poland, Architecture of Poland

Culture_of_Poland#Art

...on modern Polish painters, sculptors, architects, etc...

Literary arts

Polish literature dates back to 12th century and includes many famous poets and writers such as Jan Kochanowski, Adam Mickiewicz, Bolesław Prus, Juliusz Słowacki, Witold Gombrowicz, Stanisław Lem and, Ryszard Kapuściński. Writers Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska have each won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

...on modern Polish literature...

Polish poetry

Science fiction and fantasy in Poland

Theatre, radio, film and television

See also: Theatre of Poland, Cinema of Poland, Television in Poland

Many world renowned Polish movie directors include Academy Awards winners Roman Polanski, Andrzej Wajda, Zbigniew Rybczyński, Janusz Kamiński and, Krzysztof Kieślowski.

The Polish avant-garde theatre is world-famous, with Jerzy Grotowski as its most innovative and creative representative. One of the most original twentieth-century theatre personalities was Tadeusz Kantor, painter, theoretician of drama, stage designer, and playwright, his ideas finding their culmination in the theatre of death and his most recognised production being "Umarła klasa" (Dead Class).

There is no strict division in Poland between theatre and film actors, therefore many stage artists are known to viewers the world over, for instance from the films of Andrzej Wajda (e.g., Wojciech Pszoniak, Daniel Olbrychski, Krystyna Janda, Jerzy Radziwiłowicz) or Krzysztof Kieślowski (Jerzy Stuhr, Janusz Gajos).

...on modern Polish cinema and television...

Music

The traditional Polish music composers include world-renowned pianist Frédéric Chopin as well as famous composers such as Krzysztof Penderecki, Henryk Mikołaj Górecki, Karol Szymanowski, and others.

Between the wars, a group of composers formed the Association of Young Polish Musicians; these included Grażyna Bacewicz, Zygmunt Mycielski, Michał Spisak and Tadeusz Szeligowski.

The music of Fryderyk Chopin, influenced by Polish folklore, conveys the essence of Polish Romanticism. Since 1927, the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition has been held every five years in Warsaw.

Following World War II, some composers, such as Roman Palester and Andrzej Panufnik, fled the country and remained in the exile. In the early 1960s, however, a number of composers known as the Polish Composers' School arose, characterized by the use of sonorism and dodecaphonism. The style emerged out of the political crisis in 1956, following Stalin's death; that same year saw the Warsaw Autumn music festival inaugurated, from whence came additional popularity for the Polish Composers' School.[citation needed] Composers included Tadeusz Baird, Boguslaw Schaeffer, Włodzimierz Kotoński, Witold Szalonek, Krzysztof Penderecki, Witold Lutosławski, Wojciech Kilar, Kazimierz Serocki and Henryk Mikołaj Górecki.

More modern composers include Krzysztof Meyer, Paweł Szymański, Krzesimir Dębski, Hanna Kulenty, Eugeniusz Knapik and Paweł Mykietyn.

Poland has always been a very open country to new music genres and even before the fall of the communism, music styles like rock, metal, jazz, electronic, polka music,and New Wave were well-known. Since 1989, the Polish scene has exploded with new talents and a more diverse style. Contrary to most European countries, pop music is not dominant in Poland.

Every year, a huge gathering of young Poles meet to celebrate the rock and alternative music in Jarocin or Żary. These events often attract more than 250,000 people and are comparable to the gatherings in Woodstock and Roskilde.

Poland has a very active underground extreme metal music scene. Some of the bands that have heralded and helped the cause are Vader, Behemoth, Yattering, Decapitated, Graveland, Baphomets Throne, and Dissenter. This has paved ground for a large underground movement. One of the biggest record labels of death metal in Poland is Empire Records.

In jazz music, polish musicians created a specific style, which was most famous in 60s and 70s. Most famous polish jazz artists are: Krzysztof Komeda, Adam Makowicz, Tomasz Stańko, Michał Urbaniak.

Two contemporary big Polish music festivals are Opole Festival and Sopot Festival.

Museums and festivals

Poland offers a wide spectrum of cultural experience. Those interested in high culture will enjoy the renowned music festivals like Wratislavia Cantans and the Warsaw Autumn. Polish museums exhibit remarkable art collections - masterpieces including Leonardo da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine at the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków; the Veit Stoss High Altar in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków; and the Last Judgement by Hans Memling (The National Museum in Gdańsk). Ethnographic museums and open-air site-seeing museums also hold attractive collections. The panorama of Polish culture is completed by a medley of local festivals

Cuisine

Notable foods in Polish cuisine include Polish sausage, red beet soup, Polish dumplings, flaczki (tripe soup), cabbage rolls, Oscypek, Polish pork chops, Polish traditional stew, various potato dishes, a fast food sandwich zapiekanka, and many more. Traditional Polish desserts include Polish doughnuts, Polish gingerbread and others.

Sports

Many sports are popular in Poland. Football (soccer) is the country's most popular sport, with a rich history of international competition. Track & field, basketball, boxing, fencing, handball, ice hockey, swimming, volleyball, and weightlifting are other popular sports. The first Polish Formula One driver, Robert Kubica, has brought awareness of Formula One Racing to Poland. Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob, a highly successful Polish rider. The Polish mountains are an ideal venue for hiking, skiing and mountain biking and attract millions of tourists every year from all over the world. Baltic beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking and a broad-range of other water-themed sports.

Modern Polish society

...on modern Polish society...


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