- Bad Arolsen
Infobox German Location
name = Bad Arolsen
image_coa = COA Bad Arolsen in Germany.jpeg
state = Hesse
regbzk = Kassel
population = 18199
population_as_of = 2007-12-18
area = 126.32
elevation = 286
lat_deg = 51 | lat_min = 22 | lat_hem = N
lon_deg = 9 | lon_min = 1 | lon_hem = E
postal_code = 34454
area_code = 05691, 05696
licence = KB
mayor = Jürgen van der Horst (Independent)
website = [http://bad-arolsen.active-city.net/ Stadt Bad Arolsen]
Bad Arolsen (until 1997 Arolsen, "Bad" being the German name for "Spa") is a small town in northern
Hesse, Germany, in Waldeck-Frankenbergcounty. From 1655 until 1918 it served as the residence town of the Princes of Waldeck-Pyrmont and then until 1929 as the capital of the Waldeck Free State. The International Tracing Servicehas its headquarters in Bad Arolsen.
Bad Arolsen is situated roughly 45 km west of
The German-Dutch holiday road called the "Oranier-Route" runs through the town, joining towns, cities and regions associated with the
House of Orange.
Bad Arolsen neighbours are: the town of
Diemelstadtto the north, the town of Volkmarsen(both belonging to the county of Waldeck-Frankenberg); the town of Wolfhagenin the southeast (Kassel district); the town of Waldeck to the south , the community of Twistetalto the southwest; the community of Diemelseeto the west (the last three in Waldeck-Frankenberg county) and the town of Marsberg( Hochsauerlandkreisin North Rhine-Westphalia).
Besides the main district (8,300 inhabitants), which bears the same name as the town, Bad Arolsen consists of the following subdivisions:
* Braunsen, 199 inhabitants
* Bühle, 110 inhabitants
* Kohlgrund, 255 inhabitants.
* Helsen, 2,156 inhabitants
* Landau, 1,120 inhabitants
* Massenhausen, 583 inhabitants
Mengeringhausen, 3,746 inhabitants
* Neu-Berich, 246 inhabitants
* Schmillinghausen, 495 inhabitants
* Volkhardinghausen, 130 inhabitants
* Wetterburg, 859 inhabitants
The earliest documents mentioning Arolsen date back to 1131 when an
Augustiniannunnery was established there with the name of "Aroldessen". The nunnery was secularized in 1526 and in 1655 became the residence of the Counts (later Princes) of Waldeck, who converted it into a stately home. It was torn down in 1710 and replaced with a new Baroque structure (1713-1728) by Prince Frederik Anton Ulrich(1676-1728).
From 1918 to 1929 Arolsen was capital of the
Free Stateof Waldeck-Pyrmont (after 1922: Free State of Waldeck), which was subsequently incorporated into Prussia.
The town council's 37 seats are apportioned in accordance with municipal elections held on
26 March 2006:Note: "FWG" is a citizens' coalition. "Offene Liste" is the independent "Open List".
The town is governed by the town magistrate which is headed by the Mayor of Bad Arolsen. The incumbent Mayor is Jürgen van der Horst (Independent). His six-year term is scheduled to end in May 2014.
Coat of arms
Bad Arolsen's civic
coat of armsmight heraldically be described thus: In argent a nine-leaved oak tree vert with four acorns Or, before which an inescutcheon within which in Or a bar-topped letter "A" sable surmounted by a halved eight-pointed star sable.
The oak tree stands for the surrounding woods and indirectly the fresh air that Bad Arolsen is known for as a climatic spa. The inescutcheon shows the town's (original) initial, and the eight-pointed star of Waldeck.
The original arms were dropped in 1938 owing to a perceived reference to
Freemasonry, which was not officially tolerated in Nazi Germany. The charge in question was "God's Eye" – a triangle with the sun's rays shining out of it, such as may still be seen in Bad Krozingen's civic coat of arms. Bad Arolsen's old arms showed the same inescutcheon over this, but "God's Eye" was replaced with an oak tree in 1938. [http://www.ngw.nl/int/dld/a/arolsen.htm]
Bad Köstritz, Thuringia
Missouri, United States
Culture and sightseeing
Worthy of note is the town's
baroquelayout near the stately home. The street grid shows a chequered pattern that was typical of that time. It was originally planned to build a mirror-image layout to the stately home's east and west, but the plans were never fully carried out; after completing the developments west of the stately home, there was no money left to do the eastern part. Instead, the mirrored layout is illustrated by landscaping the area with trees and bushes. Some of the development's buildings are protected by law. Since 1999 there has been a "Gestaltungssatzung" – or "design code" – in place to ensure the townscape's current form through collective protection.
The "Grosse Allee" or "Grand Avenue" is a remarkable piece of city landscaping. It is a broad avenue running one mile from east to west lined by some 880 German oak trees in a six-line arrangement. Particularly during the warm months of spring, summer and fall it attracts scores of people strolling and enjoying the shady park-like atmosphere. The avenue was built in 1676 as a prestigious connecting way for the carriages between the "Residenzschloss" and the princely "Lustschloss", the latter having been torn down in the year 1725.
*The baroque Stately Home, "Schloss Arolsen", originally belonging to the Princes of Waldeck-Pyrmont with its imposing construction was built from 1713 until 1728 by architect Julius Ludwig Rothweil. Of particular importance are the ceiling paintings by the Italian artist Carlo Ludovici Castelli, and the outstanding
stuccoworks by Andrea Gallasini.
*"Landauer Wasserkunst", an historic
waterworksin Landau dating from 1555.
The best known outing destination near Bad Arolsen is the Twistesee, a man-made lake.
Panorama of Twistesee
*MArch/April: Lighting of the "Easter Fire" on the Königsberg fair ground
*May: "Arolser Barockfestspiele" (Baroque festival)
Magic Circle MusicFestival" (Heavy Metal Music Festival at the Bioenergiepark)
*August: "Arolser Kram- und Viehmarkt" (a fair with amusement rides, household goods and cattle markets at the Königsberg fair ground)
*August: Bad Arolsen "Twistesee Triathlon" running
*November: "Bad Arolsen Advent Waldmarathon" running
*December: "Weihnachtsmarkt" (Christmas fair at the Kirchplatz in the towns central place ”Kirchplatz“)
*Repeating every seven years (last time 2007): The “Freischiessen festival” in Mengeringhausen
Economy and infrastructure
Of particular economic importance to the town was its role as a garrison. In 1994 the Belgian Army deactivated its garrison and left the town. On
17 December 2004, the Bundeswehrdeactivated its camp in Mengeringhausen.
Bad Arolsen is located on the
railwayline from Kasselto Korbach. Local public transport is also handled by buses of the North Hesse Transport Association ("Nordhessischer Verkehrsverbund"; NVV). The town is also served by the BRS ("Busverkehr - Ruhr - Sieg") bus company.
Since 1946, Bad Arolsen has been headquarters to the
International Tracing Service, an organization dedicated to finding missing persons, typically lost to family and friends as a result of war or political unrest during World War II. The institution is led and administered by the International Red Cross and funded by the Federal Republic of Germany.
A venue for millions of documents related to the Nazi-attempted extermination of the Jewish people and others, the ITS holds vast archives of Nazi-related documents. In April 2006, German justice minister
Brigitte Zypriesannounced that Germany would cooperate with the United Statesand allow survivors and historians of the Holocaustaccess to 47 million pages of documents, although an eleven-nation accord had to decide unanimously that this was to be done. [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/8633EA3D-1AC2-41DF-9B7B-D2C385B1E10F.htm] More than 12 Million of the documents have now being digitally scanned and shared with research institutions around the world. The archive fully opened when France, Italy and Greece ratified changes to the access protocol. Information kept hidden from the public since its inception was finally open to the public in November 2007.
Well known persons
Otto von Bismarck, former Chancellorof the German Empirefrom 1871 until 1890, is a "honorary citizen" of Bad Arolsen.
Sons and daughters of the town
Philipp Nicolai, song-poet and Reformer, in Mengeringhausen (died 26 October 1608in Hamburg)
* 1620 Prince
Georg Friedrich von Waldeck(died 19 November 1692in Bad Arolsen)
Johann Stieglitz, doctor (died 31 October 1840in Hanover)
Christian Daniel Rauch, sculptor (died 3 December 1857in Dresden); The Museum in Bad Arolsen looks after his memorial.
Wilhelm von Kaulbach, painter (died 7 April 1874in Munich)
Friedrich Kaulbach, painter (died 17 September 1903in Hanover)
Walther Herwig, founder of German high-sea fishing
* 1858, Adelheid Emma Wilhelmina Theresia von Waldeck-Pyrmont, Queen and 1890-1898 Regent of the
Netherlands(Dutch King William III's second wife; died 20 March 1934in The Hague)
August Bier, surgeon, in Helsen (died 12 March 1949in Sauen(near Beeskow))
Rudolf Klapp, orthopaedicsprofessor
Josias Erbprinz von Waldeck-Pyrmont, SS Obergruppenführer(died 30 November 1967in Bad Arolsen)
Wittekind Prinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont, residing prince and chief of the House of Waldeck
* [http://hiram7.wordpress.com/2008/01/22/nazi-era-archive-available-at-us-holocaust-museum Nazi-era archive available at US Holocaust Museum]
* [http://bad-arolsen.active-city.net/ Town's official website]
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