] The now rarely-used streptomycin takes its name directly from "Streptomyces". Streptomycetes are infrequent pathogens, though infections in human such as mycetoma can be caused by "S. somaliensis" and "S. sudanensis" and in plants such as scabies can be caused by "S. caviscabies" and "S. scabies".


The complete genome of one of the strain, "S. coelicolor" A3(2), was published in 2002.cite journal | author = Bentley SD, "et al". | title = Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete "Streptomyces coelicolor" A3(2) | journal = Nature | year = 2002 | volume = 417 | issue = | pages = 141–147 | doi = 10.1038/417141a |pmid=12000953] At the time, the "S. coelicolor" genome was thought to contain the largest number of genes of any bacterium. The first complete genome sequence of "S. avermitilis" was completed in 2003.cite journal | author = Ikeda H; Ishikawa J; Hanamoto A; Shinose M; Kikuchi H; Shiba T; Sakaki Y; Hattori M; Omura S | title= Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the industrial microorganism "Streptomyces avermitilis" | journal = Nat. Biotechnol. | year = 2003 | volume = 21 | issue = | pages = 526–531 | url = | pmid= 12692562 | doi = 10.1038/nbt820] Each of these genomes form a chromosome with a linear structure, unlike most bacterial genomes which exist in the form of circular chromosomes. The genome sequence of "S. scabies", a member of the genus with the ability to cause potato scab disease, has been determined at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and is currently in annotation, with publication scheduled for 2007.

Taxonomically, "S. coelicolor" A3(2) belongs to the species of "S. violaceoruber" and not a validly described separate species; "S. coelicolor" A3(2) is not to be mistaken for "S. coelicolor" (Müller) ( [ ATCC 23899] ).


In recent years, biotechnology researchers have begun to use "Streptomyces spp." for production of recombinant human proteins. Traditionally, "Escherichia coli" was the species of choice to host eukaryotic genes since it was well understood and easy to work with.cite journal |author=Brawner M, Poste G, Rosenberg M, Westpheling J |title="Streptomyces": a host for heterologous gene expression |journal=Curr Opin Biotechnol |volume=2 |issue=5 |pages=674–81 |year=1991 |pmid=1367716 |doi=10.1016/0958-1669(91)90033-2] cite journal |author=Payne G, DelaCruz N, Coppella S |title=Improved production of heterologous protein from "Streptomyces lividans" |journal=Appl Microbiol Biotechnol |volume=33 |issue=4 |pages=395–400 |year=1990 |pmid=1369282 |doi=10.1007/BF00176653] However, "E. coli" introduces problems such as incorrect (or lack of) glycosylation and incorrect protein folding, resulting in insolubility and loss of bioactivity of the product.cite journal |author=Binnie C, Cossar J, Stewart D |title=Heterologous biopharmaceutical protein expression in "Streptomyces" |journal=Trends Biotechnol |volume=15 |issue=8 |pages=315–20 |year=1997 |pmid=9263479 |doi=10.1016/S0167-7799(97)01062-7] "Streptomyces spp." on the other hand have the ability to secrete correctly folded recombinant proteins into the medium after production simplifying the subsequent purification steps. These properties among others make "Streptomyces spp." an attractive alternative to other bacteria such as "E. coli" and "Bacillus subtilis".cite journal |author=Binnie C, Cossar J, Stewart D |title=Heterologous biopharmaceutical protein expression in "Streptomyces" |journal=Trends Biotechnol |volume=15 |issue=8 |pages=315–20 |year=1997 |pmid=9263479 |doi=10.1016/S0167-7799(97)01062-7]


"Streptomyces" is the largest antibiotic producing genuscite journal |author=Watve MG, Tickoo R, Jog MM, Bhole BD |title=How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? |journal=Arch. Microbiol. |volume=176 |issue=5 |pages=386–90 |year=2001 |month=November |pmid=11702082 |doi=10.1007/s002030100345 |url=] , producing both antibacterials and antifungals, and also a wide range of other bioactive compounds such as immunosuppressants

ome of the antifungals produced by "Streptomyces" spp.

* Nystatin (from "S. noursei")
* Amphotericin B (from "S. nodosus")
* Natamycin (from "S. natalensis")

ome of the antibiotics produced by "Streptomyces" spp.

* Erythromycin (from "S. erythreus")
* Neomycin (from "S. fradiae")
* Streptomycin (from "S. griseus")
* Tetracycline (from "S. rimosus")
* Vancomycin (from "S. orientalis")
* Rifamycin (from "S. mediterranei")
* Chloramphenicol (from "S. venezuelae")
* Puromycin (from "S. alboniger")
* Lincomycin (from "S. lincolnensis")

ome of the Alkaloids produced by "Streptomyces" spp.

* Physostigmine (from "S.griseofuscus")

ome of the anti-cancer compounds produced by "Streptomyces" spp.

* Migrastatin (from "S. platensis")


Further reading


ee also

*Antimycin A - compound produced by this bacteria used in piscicides.

External links

* [ Some current "Streptomyces" Research & Methods / Protocols / Resources]
* [ "S. avermitilis" genome homepage] ( [ Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences] )
** "S. avermitilis" is the avermectin producer.
* [ "S. coelicolor" A3(2) genome homepage] ( [ Sanger Institute] )
* [ homepage] ( [ John Innes Centre] )
* [ StrepDB - the "Streptomyces" genomes annotation browser]
* [ Streptomyces Genome Projects] from [ Genomes OnLine Database]

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