- Cellulose insulation
cellulosecomes from the French word for a living cellule and glucose, which is sugar. Insulation is low-thermal-conductivity material used to separate the internal climate and sounds of a building from external climate and sounds. Cellulose insulation is plant fiber used in wall and roof cavities to separate the inside and outside of the building thermally and acoustically.
History of cellulose insulation
"' Cellulose is the oldest building insulation materialFact|date=December 2007. Many types of cellulosic materials have been used, including newspaper, cardboard, cotton, straw, sawdust, hemp and corncob.
Monticellowas insulated with a form of cellulose. Modern cellulose insulation, made with recycled newspaper using grinding and dust removing machines and adding a fire retardant, began in the 1950s and came into general use in the US during the 1970s.
The market for insulation increased following the oil embargo of 1973-74. The embargo caused energy costs for heating to skyrocket across the nation, which lead to increased interest in energy conservation measures. Insulation gained significant national attention as a cheap and available technology to increase the energy efficiency of homes. In 1977, following a particularly severe winter, a tax credit was given for homeowners who installed insulation.
While in 1976 there were roughly 100 cellulose insulation firms with 125 plants, by 1978 there were more than 350 firms with more than 500 plants1 . Cellulose insulation was produced locally by small manufacturers who purchased ready-to-operate machines and offered a cheap and easy low-tech production process. Other than some constraints created by a shortage of boric acid for use as fire retardant, cellulose captured an increased share of the market due to lower costs and its suitability for retrofits. Meanwhile fiberglass and rockwool producers found it difficult to keep up with the demand for insulation from their customers.
Due to complaints by retailers, contractors and consumers about price, safety and quality control problems, the federal government began enacting insulation standards beginning in 1978. There was a great concern that the growth in cellulose manufactures was leading to improperly or insufficiently treating insulation against the threat of fire even though reliable statistics on a national basis did not exist. This led to the Federal Consumer Products Safety Commission passing 16 CFR Part 1209, which sets safety standards covering four product attributes for cellulose insulation only: settled density, corrosiveness, critical radiant flux and smoldering combustion. Another regulation passed was the “R-value Rule,” placing clear limitations on the claims that manufacturing and marketing firms can make about their product.
The effect of regulations by the CPSC put most of the small producers of cellulose insulation out of business. The costs incurred by increasing fire testing made cellulose more expensive and the bad publicity helped decrease demand. They were either unable to meet the testing requirements or they merged with other small manufacturers. In 1985 the CPSC asked Congress to repeal the flammability standard after further studies. By 1991 only 61 cellulose producers still remained in the US. [Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association, http://www.cellulose.org/]
The fiberglass industry meanwhile benefited from most of the regulations passed by the federal government. The heavy lobbying by the more centralized
fiberglassand mineral insulation manufacturers helped pass the tough fire standards for cellulose insulation. These standards were reinforced by technical bulletins published by the Mineral Insulation Manufacturers Association (currently known as the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association) that promoted fire hazard claims against cellulose insulation. These claims were not independently verified, faced little scientific review, and were misleading and untrueFact|date=December 2007.
Currently cellulose insulation has increased again in use in the United States. Part of the reason for this growth are studies that have shown results that suggest that cellulose may actually protect a building from damage in a fire better than fiberglass because cellulose is denser than fiberglass and doesn't allow the oxygen necessary to burn structural members. Several National Research Council Canada studies [http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/fulltext/ir806/] have backed these claims. Another major reason for the comeback of cellulose might be because of the increased interest in
green building. Cellulose has the highest recycled content of any insulation material and also has less embodied energythan fiberglass and other furnace produced mineral insulations.
"' Four major types of loose-fill cellulose products have been developed under a variety of brand names. These are generally characterized as dry cellulose, spray applied cellulose, stabilized cellulose and low dust cellulose. These types are used in different parts of a building and for different reasons.
Dry Cellulose (Loose Fill)
Dry cellulose is used in retrofitting old homes by blowing the cellulose into holes drilled into the tops of the walls. It can also be blown into a new wall construction by using temporary retainers or netting that is clamped in place then removed once the cellulose has reached the appropriate density. This form of application does settle as much as 20% but the stated R-value of the cellulose is accurate after settling occurs. In addition, a dense-pack option can be used to reduce settling and further minimize air gaps. Dense-pack places pressure on the cavity, and should be done by an experienced installer.
Spray Applied Cellulose (Wet-Spray)
Spray applied cellulose is used for applying cellulose to new wall construction. The only difference is the addition of water to the cellulose while spraying. In some cases the insulation might also mix in a very small percentage of adhesive or activate a dry adhesive present in the cellulose. Wet-spray allows application without the need for a temporary retainer. In addition, wet-spray allows for an even better seal of the insulated cavity against air infiltration and eliminates settling problems. Wet-spray installation requires that the wall be allowed to dry for a minimum of 24 hours (or until maximum of 25% moisture is reached) before being covered. [ICC Legacy Report ER-2833 - Cocoon Thermal and Sound Insulation Products, ICC Evaluation Services, Inc., http://www.icc-es.org]
Stabilized cellulose is used most often in attic/roof insulation. It is applied with a very small amount of water to activate an adhesive of some kind. This reduces settling and decreases the amount of cellulose needed. This can prove advantageous at reducing the overall weight of the product on the ceiling drywall helping prevent possible sag. This application is ideal for sloped roofs and has been approved for 5:12 (41.66%) slopes. [ICC Legacy Report ER-2833 - Cocoon Thermal and Sound Insulation Products, ICC Evaluation Services, Inc., http://www.icc-es.org]
The last major type of cellulose insulation on the market is low dust variety. Nuisance levels of dust are created during application of most types of dry insulation causing the need for simple dust masks to be worn during installation. This kind of cellulose has a small percentage of oil or similar dust dampener added. This may also be appropriate to homes were people are sensitive to newsprint or paper dust (though new dust will not be created after installation).
The thermal performance of loose filled cellulose compares favorably to other types of insulation. The thermal conductivity of loose-fill cellulose is approximately 40 mW/(K*m) (an R-value of 3.8 per inch) which is about the same as or slightly better than glass wool or rock wool. This doesn’t represent the whole picture of thermal performance. Other important aspects are how well the building envelope is sealed from air infiltration, convective airflows, and thermal bridging.
Cellulose is very good at fitting around items in walls like pipes and wiring leaving few air pockets that can reduce the overall efficiency of the wall. It also seals walls from air infiltration while providing the density to limit convection. The University of Colorado School of Architecture and Planning did a study that compared two seemingly identical test structures, one with cellulose and the other with fiberglass. The cellulose structure had used 26.4% less energy to heat. It also was shown to tighten the structure more than 30%. Subsequent real world surveys have cellulose performing 20-30% better at reducing energy used for heating than fiberglass.
Compared to foam insulation, cellulose has a lower R-value per inch, but is much less expensive; foam has a higher cost per equivalent R-value.
Long-Term Cost Savings
Cellulose's insulation qualities "can save homeowners 20 to 50 percent on their utility bills". [ [http://www.hgtvpro.com/hpro/bp_insulation/article/0,2617,HPRO_20150_4243847,00.html HGTV Pro.com - Best Practices: Cellulose Insulation] ]
Noise reduction is achieved in three ways with cellulose. The first is that cellulose completely fills cavities leaving few air pockets for sound to travel in. The second is the cellulose materials ability to trap air. The significant difference between noise reduction with cellulose and fiberglass is its density. Cellulose is approximately three times denser then fiberglass. This helps deaden the sound through walls and between floor levels.
Several installation options allow walls to have a
Sound Transmission Class(STC) of 50 or greater. [ICC Legacy Report ER-2833 - Cocoon Thermal and Sound Insulation Products, ICC Evaluation Services, Inc., http://www.icc-es.org] As a comparison, walls with fiberglass batts have an STC of 36-39, depending on stud and screw spacing.
Mold and Pest Control
The borates in cellulose insulation provide superior control against mold, insects, and pests such as rodents. Installations have shown that even several months of water-saturation and improper installation did not result in mold. [ [http://www.builtgreen.org/articles/0209_cellulose.htm Cellulose insulation winning market share in Colorado, Built Green Colorado, Steve Andres, October 5, 2007] ]
The borate treatment also provides cellulose with the highest (Class I) fire safety rating. This is an advantage over foams and fiberglass. In addition, fire will not cause toxic fumes.
A vapor barrier may not be needed with cellulose insulation. For example, recent studies have shown that air movement is the primary method by which excessive moisture can accumulate in mild marine climate such as Portland, OR, USA. [City of Portland Oregon, The Plans Examiner, March 2007 http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=149882] An insulation that fills the wall cavity completely (such as cellulose or foam) can help prevent moisture problems. Recommendations against using vapor barriers with cellulose insulation are supported by studies, even though they classify cellulose as vapor permeable. [Applegate Insulation, letter on recommendation regarding vapor retarders, http://www.paulseninsulation.com/docs/vaporretarder.pdf] [Advanced Fiber Technology, Summary of Vapor Barriers/Retarders, http://www.advancedfiber.com/AFT%20Summary%2001.pdf]
In addition, cellulose acts to distribute moisture throughout the cavity, preventing the buildup of moisture in one area and helping to dry the moisture more quickly. Cellulose manufacturers do not recommend the installation of a vapor barrier with cellulose. [Green Fiber, Use of Vapor Retarders, http://www.greenfiber.com/technical_documents/vapor_retarder_use.asp]
Most city codes will require a vapor barrier for any external wall. Most US cities will consider an appeal of the requirement if proper reasoning is provided. In March 2008 The US city of Portland, Oregon, approved an appeal to waive the requirement for a vapor barrier/retarder when using cellulose insulation. The appeal can be viewed in the [http://www.bds.ci.portland.or.us/bds/appeal/view/rpt_form.asp Portland Bureau of Development Services] search form by searching for appeal ID 4996. Fundamental to any appeal is mentioning that recent studies show air movement is the primary problem for vapor, that cellulose is an effective barrier to air movement, and that cellulose acts to diffuse vapor.
Cellulose has few disadvantages. As compared to other insulation options, the R-Value of 3.6 to 3.8 is very good but not the best (though it competes well in cost per R-Value). Spray foam has many of the same benefits as wet-spray cellulose (such as sealing the cavity), while having an advantage in R-Value and rigidity (however, spray foam has undesirable environmental qualities).
Installation Expertise and Building Codes
In some areas it can be difficult to locate installers that are experienced with cellulose. An experienced installer understands how to correctly dense-pack loose fill dry cellulose, how to best apply stabilized (partly-wet) cellulose on sloped surfaces, and the proper time required for wet-spray cellulose to dry.
As with other non-batt insulation, city and regional/state building codes may not be updated for cellulose insulation. Homeowners should call the city to verify that the insulation will be approved, and it may be necessary to provide product specifications to the city. This is not difficult, and the installer and the manufacturer should both be willing to handle this process, saving the homeowner any true effort.
Most building codes require a vapor barrier, and it can be hard to convince some cities that one is not required for cellulose. In this case, an appeal (usually a quick process) may be necessary. Otherwise, vapor barriers can be installed. Options for a vapor barrier include plastic sheeting (fairly low environmental footprint due to the thin layer needed) or PVA paint (contains toxins and other qualities undesirable from an environmental standpoint).
Wet-Spray Drying Time
Wet-spray provides the advantage of a better sealing of the insulated cavity and superior rigidity. However, the moisture from a wet-spray insulation requires a longer drying time before the drywall/sheet-rock is applied to a newly insulated wall. This drying time is usually reduced by the use of large space heaters that are run for a few days to weeks, depending on ambient humidity. The installer should use a moisture meter to verify acceptable in-wall moisture levels before any drywall is applied. From an environmental and energy efficiency perspective, wet-spray is well worth the extra heating and time. This extra timing needs to be considered as part of the building schedule for new or remodel projects.
One drawback to cellulose insulation may be the attractiveness of the primary ingredient to insectsFact|date=March 2008. Subterranean
Termitesand Drywood Termites thrive on cellulose. The insulation, especially if used on lower floors acts as an attractant to Termites. Termites can detect simple cellulose such as cellulose insulation, from hundreds of feet up in a high floorFact|date=March 2008. Their preferred food source is cellulose with the least resistance to consumption such as paperFact|date=March 2008. Insulated areas should be checked regularly for signs of the inevitableFact|date=March 2008 infestation for mud tunnels behind walls and between rafters.
However, almost all present-day cellulose insulation contains a borate treatment. The borate will not attract termites or other insects and has been shown to not be a suitable food source for termites. [ [http://www.tapinsulation.com/downloads/tapnochoice.pdf Study: Termite Resistance of TAP Insulation in a No-Choice Test] ]
Sustainable and Environmentally Preferable Properties
Cellulose insulation is growing in popularity, in part due to being one of the most environmentally preferable insulation types available.
Cellulose is composed of 75-85% recycled paper fiber, usually post-consumer waste newsprint. The other 15% is a fire retardant such as
boric acidor ammonium sulphate. Cellulose has the highest recycled content of any insulation available. By example, fiberglass has a maximum amount of 30% recycled content.
Low-Toxicity and Environmental Impact of Raw Materials
The non-recycled components of cellulose insulation are still environmentally preferable to the raw materials of most other insulation types, which are often petrochemical-based (this includes foam and fiberglass). Unlike foam insulations, many of which use
HFCor HCFCblowing agents which have global warming potentialhundred or thousands of times higher than that of carbon dioxide, cellulose does not produce significant gaseous emissions. Unlike fiberglass, cellulose does not use formaldehyde-based glues, which present a continuing hazard after installation due to off-gassing of formaldehyde.
Cellulose has great advantages for industrial health and worker safety. Toxicity of the raw materials of most insulation types is typically highest during manufacture or installation. Neither is an issue with cellulose.
The sole hazard for cellulose is categorization by
OSHAas a dust nuisance, requiring a simple dust mask during installation. This compares very favorably to the potential [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0288.html NIOSH] cancer risk of fiberglass.
embodied energyof cellulose compared to all other insulation is by far the lowest. It requires 20 to 40 times as much energy to produce furnace-made insulation materials compared to cellulose. Cellulose is made by electrically powered machines while mineral insulation is made in furnaces. Cellulose is also made with locally available materials other than the fire retardant, while mineral insulation factories have to ship materials and products over greater distances.
Cellulose insulation does use borates, which are mined in California and Turkey. While small quantities are used, this is a limited resource. [ [http://www.riotinto.com/whatweproduce/452_borates_3606.asp Rio Tinto: Borates - Learn More] Borax mining employs one of the cleanest mining techniques available. [Tom Laichas, "A Conversation with Jared Diamond", http://worldhistoryconnected.press.uiuc.edu/2.2/laichas.html] . From a mining and natural resource perspective, cellulose is preferable to foam and fiberglass insulation.
Insulation is Green
All insulation helps make buildings more energy efficient. Using cellulose insulation can contribute to obtaining LEED credits in the US Green Building Council certification program. It can earn credit in two categories: the energy and atmosphere energy performance category and the materials and resources recycled content category.
Cellulose insulation can be very dusty during insulation and it is recommended that a standard dust mask be worn while working. The fire retardant
boric acidis about as dangerous as table salt. There is slight concern over the off gassing of ink from the newspapers but the material is sealed behind walls, and no studies have shown this as an issue.
[http://www.cocooninsulation.com/ GreenFiber Cocoon Insulation, including links to finding an installer.]
[http://www.bobvila.com/BVTV/HomeAgain/Video-0319-02-0.html Bob Vila - Beach House Cellulose Installation Video]
[http://www.thisoldhouse.com/toh/video/0,,20047052,00.html This Old House - Retrofitting Cellulose Insulation video]
[http://www.regalind.com/techPDF/General%20Information/Is%20%20A%20Vapor%20Barrier%20Needed%20for%20a%20Cellulose%20Insulatied%20Home.pdf Is a Vapor Barrier Needed for a Cellulose Insulated Home?]
[http://www.cellulose.org/pdf/cellulose_bulletins/tech_bulletin2.pdf CIMA Technical Bulletin #2: Standard practice for installing cellulose building insulation]
* "McGrath, Ed (1981)". The Super Insulated House; A working guide for owner-builders, architects, carpenters and contractors. "Fairbanks: That New Publishing Company."
* Home Insulation: Hearings before the Subcommittee on oversight and investigations of the committee on interstate and foreign commerce; House of Representatives Ninety-fifth Congress; Second Session; February 21, 22, and 23, 1978 Serial No. 95-81
* Enforcement of a cellulose insulation safety standard; Hearings before the Subcommittee on oversight and investigations and the Subcommittee on Consumer Protection and Finance of the committee on interstate and foreign commerce; House of Representatives Ninety-fifth Congress; Second Session; April 19, 1978; Serial No. 95-100
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