- Razia Sultana
Razia al-Din (1205-1240) (Persian / Urdu: رضیہ سلطانہ), throne name "Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ" (Persian / Urdu: جلالۃ الدین رضیہ), usually referred to in history as "Razia Sultan" or "Razia Sultana", was the Sultan of
Delhiin Indiafrom 1236 to 1240. She was of Turkish Seljuksancestry and like some other Muslimprincesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary. [http://www.crescentlife.com/thisthat/feminist%20muslims/razia.htm Gloria Steinem (Introduction), "Herstory: Women Who Changed the World," eds. Deborah G. Ohrn and Ruth Ashby, Viking, (1995) p. 34-36. ISBN 978-0sex670854349] ] Razia Sultanawas the very first Lady Queenof the MuslimHistory.
Razia as Sultan
Razia succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. (According to one source, Iltumish's eldest son had initially been groomed as his successor, but had died prematurely.) But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish's appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on April 29, 1236, Razia's brother, Ruknuddin Feroze Shah, was elevated to the throne instead.
Ruknuddin's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated [Satish Chandra, "History of Medieval India(800-1700)," New Delhi, Orient Longman, (2007), p.100. ISBN 81-250-3226-6] after only six months in power.
With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi. As a child and adolescent, Razia had had little contact with the women of the harem, so she had not learnt the customary behavior of women in the Muslim society that she was born into. Even before she became Sultan, she was reportedly preoccupied with the affairs of state during her father's reign. As Sultan, Razia preferred a man's tunic and headdress; and contrary to custom, she would later show her face when she rode an elephant into battle at the head of her army.
A shrewd politician, Razia managed to keep the nobles in check, while enlisting the support of the army and the populace. Her greatest accomplishment on the political front was to manipulate rebel factions into opposing each other. At that point, Razia seemed destined to become one of the most powerful rulers of the Delhi Sultanate.
But Razia miscounted the consequences that a relationship with one of her advisers,
Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian Habshislave [ [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/ethiopia_across_red_sea_&_indian_ocean.htm#3 Dr. Richard Pankhurst, "Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean", Addis Ababa, "Addis Tribune," (21 May 1999)] ] , would have for her reign. According to some accounts, Razia and Yaqut were lovers; other sources simply identify them as close confidants. In any case, before long she had aroused the jealousy of the Muslim nobility by the favoritism she displayed toward Yaqut, who was not a Turk, when she appointed him to be Superintendent of the Stables. Eventually, a childhood friend named Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda, joined a rebellion by other provincial governors who refused to accept Razia's authority.
A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued, with the result that Yaqut was killed and Razia taken prisoner. To escape death, Razia agreed to marry Altunia. Meanwhile, Razia's brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, had usurped the throne. After Altunia and Razia undertook to take back the sultanate from Bahram through battle, both Razia and her husband were killed on October 14, 1240 (some sources say October 13). Bahram, for his part, would later be dethroned for incompetence.
As sultan, Razia reportedly sought to abolish the tax on non-Muslims but met opposition from the nobility. By way of response, Razia is said to have pointed out that the spirit of religion was more important than its parts, and that even the
Islamic prophet Muhammadspoke against overburdening the non-Muslims. On another occasion, Razia reportedly tried to appoint an Indian Muslim convert from Hinduism to an official position but again ran into opposition from the nobles.
Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them. Her tolerance of Hinduism would later bring her criticism from Muslim historians.
Razia established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient philosophers along with the Quran and the Traditions of Muhammad. Hindu works in the sciences, philosophy, astronomy, and literature were reportedly studied in schools and colleges.
Razia refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant "wife or mistress of a sultan". She would answer only to the title "Sultan".
Razia's grave lies among the narrow lanes of Old Delhi, in a courtyard in Bulbul-i-khana, Shahjahanabad, near the Turkman Gate entrance. Crumbling and covered by dust and grime, the grave has clearly suffered the ravages of time. The grave is surrounded on all sides by unattractive residential buildings.
In the thirteenth century, the site of the tomb was a jungle, and no one knows how Razia's body ended up where it lies today. A second grave, believed to be that of her sister, Shazia, accompanies Razia's. Some of the Muslim residents of the neighborhood have turned a part of the tomb into a mosque, where prayers are conducted five times each day.
However, there's also a claim that the tomb of Razia is situated in
Kaithalcity, Haryana state [ [http://www.delhilive.com/razia-sultan-s-tomb Razia Sultan’s Tomb - Delhi live] ] . The tomb lies in the North-western suburbs of the city where, a few years back, a jail was erected by the present administration.
List of Indian monarchs
Razia Sultan (film)
* Jamila Brijbhushan, "Sultan Raziya, Her Life and Times: A Reappraisal," South Asia Books (1990) ISBN 8185425094
* Rafiq Zakaria, "Razia, Queen of India," Oxford University Press (1966)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.