Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae

Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae

The taxonomy of the orchid family has evolved slowly during the last 150 years, starting with Carolus Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. The next step was taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies. He is generally recognized as the father of orchid taxonomy. The next important step was taken by George Bentham in 1881 with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for the first time. The next great contributors were Pfitzer (1887), Schlechter (1926), Mansfeld (1937), Dressler and Dodson (1960), Garay (1960, 1972), Vermeulen (1966), again Dressler (1981) and Burns-Balogh and Funk (1986).

The following taxonomy follows largely the classification system of Robert Louis Dressler, an orchid specialist and adjunct curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History. This classification, published in the book "The Orchids: Natural History and Classification", is widely accepted by botanists and growers. The initial scheme of 1981 has been modified in 1986, twice in 1990. and then again in 1993. This is the most comprehensive classification at the moment. But it relies heavily on morphology and a few key characters, such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure.

According to morphological cladistics and research with "rbcL" nucleotide sequences, the orchid family, as well as the clades within the family, are a monophyletic group. There is a great similarity with the traditional taxonomy, except for the Vandoideae, but on lower levels, some matters are still unresolved. Few tribes, as listed here below, are monophyletic. Cladistic and molecular methods give us a firmer basis, but the classification is still an ongoing issue. There is even no strong support for the interelationships of the subfamilies. Furthermore, about 150 species and even new genera are still being discovered each year.

The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided in several subfamilies, and then in tribes, subtribes, alliances and then genera.

According to Dressler, there are 5 subfamilies, 22 tribes, 70 subtribes, about 850 genera and about 20,000 species in this family.

The following subfamilies are recognized:
*Subfamily Apostasioideae: monophyletic - the most primitive orchids : 3 fertile anthers or two fertile anthers and a filamentous staminode.
*Subfamily Cypripedioideae: monophyletic - 2 fertile diandrous anthers, a shield-shaped staminode and a saccate (= pouch-like) lip.
*Subfamily Orchidoideae: single, fertile monandrous, basitonic anther.
**(Subfamily Spiranthoideae): nested within a more broadly defined Orchidoideae
*Subfamily Epidendroideae: includes almost 80% of the orchid species; monophyletic; orchids with an incumbent to suberect ( = ascending towards the edges) anther.
**(Subfamily Higher Epidendroideae (formerly Vandoideae) : specialised clade within a more broadly defined Epidendroideae
*Subfamily Vanilloideae: an ancient clade now recognized as a distinct subfamily. But, from a molecular point of view, it is rather a sister to subfamily Epidendroideae + subfamily Orchidoideae. This subfamily is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids.

As the "Genera Orchidacearum" (Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F.; Oxford Univ. Press.) will only be completed in 2006-2007, and changes in taxonomy of orchids are so frequent, the following taxonomy still follows largely the system of Robert Louis Dressler.

ubfamily Apostasioideae

2 genera and about 16 species of very primitive orchids:::"Apostasia" Blume, included "Adactylus" Rolfe and "Mesodactylis" Wall.::"Neuwiedia" Blume

ubfamily Cypripedioideae

6 genera with about 115 species, mostly terrestrials or lithophytes:

Tribe Cypripedieae

Subtribe Cypripediinae::"Cypripedium" Lindl. , included "Arietinum" Beck, "Calceolaria" Heist. ex Fabr., "Calceolus" Nieuwl., "Ciripedium" Zumagl., "Criogenes" Salisb., "Fissipes" Small, "Hypodema" Rchb., "Sacodon" Raf., "Schizopedium" Salisb., "Stimegas" Raf.Subtribe Paphiopedilinae::"Paphiopedilum" Pfitzer, included "Cordula" Raf. and "Menephora" Raf.

Tribe Mexipedieae

Subtribe Mexipediinae::"Mexipedium" V.A.Albert & M.W.Chase

Tribe Phragmipedieae

Subtribe Phragmipediinae::"Phragmipedium" Rolfe, included "Phragmopedilum" Pfitzer, "Uropedium" Lindl.

Tribe Selenipedieae

Subtribe Selenipediinae::"Selenipedium" Rchb.f.


::x"Phragmipaphium" Hort.

ubfamily Epidendroideae

This is the largest subfamily, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. Most are tropical epiphytes (usually with pseudobulbs), but some are terrestrials and even a few myco-heterotrophs. All show a unique development of the single anther: it is incumbent forming a right angle with the column axis or pointed backward in many genera. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains; pollinia with caudicle and viscidium or without; stigma entire or 3-lobed; rostellum present; 1-locular ovary; leaves: distichous or spiraling

Tribe Arethuseae

Over 500 species.

Subtribe Arethusinae::"Arethusa" L.::x "Elearethusa"::x "Elecalthusa"::"Eleorchis" F.Maek.::x "Elepogon"Subtribe Bletiinae::"Ancistrochilus" Rolfe::"Anthogonium" Wall. ex Lindl.::"Cephalantheropsis" Guillaumin::"Eriodes" Rolfe, included "Neotainiopsis" Bennet & Raizada, "Tainiopsis" Schltr.::"Hancockia" Rolfe::"Hexalectris" Raf.::"Ipsea" Lindl.::"Mischobulbum" Schltr., included "Mischobulbon" Schltr. (orth. var.)::"Nephelaphyllum" Blume::"Pachystoma" Blume, included "Apaturia" Lindl., "Pachychilus" Blume and "Pachystylis" Blume:Alliance Arundina::"Arundina" Rich.:Alliance Calopogon::"Calopogon" R.Br., included "Cathea" Salisb., "Helleborine" Kuntze:Alliance Calanthe::"Acanthephippium" Blume, included "Acanthophippium" Blume (orth. var.)::"Bletia" Ruiz & Pav., included "Anthogyas" Raf., "Bletiana" Raf., "Crybe" Lindl., "Gyas" Salisb., "Regnellia" Barb. Rodr., "Thiebautia" Colla::"Bletilla" Rchb.f., included "Jimensia" Raf., "Polytoma" Lour. ex Gomes::"Calanthe" R.Br., included "Alismorkis" Thouars, "Amblyglottis" Blume, "Aulostylis" Schltr., "Calanthidum" Pfitzer, "Centrosia" A.Rich., "Centrosis" Thouars, "Cytheris" Lindl., "Ghiesbreghtia" A.Rich. & Galeotti, "Limatodes" Blume, "Paracalanthe" Kudô, "Preptanthe" Rchb.f., "Styloglossum" Breda, "Sylvalismis" Thouars::"Phaius" Lour., included "Cyanorchis" Thouars, "Gastorchis" Thouars, "Gastrorchis" Schltr., "Hecabe" Raf., "Pachyne" Salisb., "Pesomeria" Lindl., "Tankervillia" Link::"Spathoglottis" Blume, included "Paxtonia" Lindl.:Alliance Coelia::"Coelia" Lindl., included "Bothriochilus" Lem.:Alliance Chysis:: "Chysis" Lindl., included "Thorvaldsenia" Liebm.:Alliance Plocoglottis::"Plocoglottis" Blume:Alliance Tainia::"Tainia" Blume, included "Ania" Lindl., "Ascotainia" Ridl., "Mitopetalum" BlumeSubtribe Sobraliinae::"Sobralia" Ruiz & Pav., included "Cyathoglottis" Poepp. & Endl., "Fregea" Rchb.f., "Lindsayella" Ames & C.Schweinf.Subtribe Thuniinae::"Thunia" Rchb.f.

Tribe Calypsoeae

::"Aplectrum" (Nutt.) Torr.::"Calypso", included "Calypsodium" Link, "Cytherea" Salisb., "Norna" Wahlenb., "Orchidium" Sw.::"Tipularia" Nutt., included "Anthericlis" Raf., "Plecturus" Raf.

Tribe Cryptarrheneae

::"Cryptarrhena" R.Br., included "Orchidofunckia" A.Rich. & Galeotti

Tribe Coelogyneae

Over 400 species

Subtribe Adrorhizinae::"Adrorhizon" Hook.f.Subtribe Coelogyninae::"Coelogyne" Lindl., included "Bolborchis" Lindl., "Hologyne" Pfitzer, "Ptychogyne" Pfitzer::"Dendrochilum" Blume, included "Acoridium" Nees & Meyen, "Platyclinis" Benth.::"Pleione" D.Don

Tribe Epidendreae"'

Cosmopolitan; largest tribe of this subfamily, with over 8,000 species

Subtribe Glomerinae::"Agrostophyllum" Blume::"Earina" Lindl."Glomera" Blume, included "Ischnocentrum" Schltr.,"Sepalosiphon" Schltr.

Subtribe Laeliinae: over 1400 species, mostly tropical American epiphytes, in 43 genera. It contains more than 25% (136) of all hybrid genera.:Alliance Isochilus::"Hexisea" Lindl., included "Costaricaea" Schltr., "Euothonaea" Rchb.f., "Isochilus" R.Br.:Alliance Cattleya::"Brassavola" R.Br., included "Eudisanthema" Neck. ex Post & Kuntze, "Lysimnia" Raf., "Tulexis" Raf.::"Broughtonia" R.Br., included "Cattleyopsis" Lem., "Laeliopsis" Lindl. & Paxton::"Cattleya" Lindl., included "Maelenia" Dumort.::"Encyclia" Hook., included "Amblostoma" Scheidw., "Dinema" Lindl., "Hormidium" (Lindl.) Heynh., "Sulpitia" Raf.::"Laelia" Lindl., included "Amalia" Rchb.::"Rhyncholaelia" Schltr.::"Schomburgkia" Lindl.::"Sophronitis" Lindl., included "Lophoglottis" Raf., "Sophronia" Lindl.::"Guarianthe "Dressler & W.E. Higgins (2003):Alliance Barkeria::"Barkeria" Knowles & Westc.::"Caularthron" Raf., included "Diacrium" (Lindl.) Benth.:Alliance Epidendrum::"Epidendrum" Jacq., included "Amphiglottis" Salisb., "Anacheilium" Hoffmanns., "Anocheil"' Hoffmanns. ex Rchb., "Auliza" Small, "Coilostylis" Raf., "Didothion" Raf.,, "Diothonea" Lindl., "Dothilophis" Raf., "Doxosma" Raf., "Epicladium" Small, "Epidanthus" L.O.Williams, "Epidendropsis" Garay & Dunst., "Exophya" Raf., "Hemiscleria" Lindl., "Kalopternix" Garay & Dunst., "Lanium" (Lindl.) Benth., "Larnandra" Raf., "Microepidendrum" Brieger (nom. inval.), "Minicolumna" Brieger (nom. inval.), "Nanodes" Lindl., "Neolehmannia" Kraenzl., "Neowilliamsia" Garay, "Nyctosma" Raf., "Phadrosanthus" Neck. ex Raf., "Physinga" Lindl., "Pleuranthium" Benth., "Prosthechea" Knowles & Westc., "Pseudepidendrum" Rchb.f., "Seraphyta" Fisch. & C.A.Mey., "Spathiger" Small, "Stenoglossum" Kunth, "Tritelandra" Raf.:Alliance Leptotes::"Leptotes" Lindl.:Alliance Neocogniauxia::"Neocogniauxia" Schltr.::"Dilomilis" Raf.::"Tomzanonia" Nir

:Alliance hybrids::"Brassocattleya" hort.::"Brassoepidendrum" hort.::"Brassolaeliocattleya" hort.::"Cattleytonia" hort.::"Epicattleya" hort.::"Epilaeliocattleya" hort.::"Hawkinsara" hort.::"Laeliocatonia" hort.::"Laeliocattleya" hort. ex Rolfe::"Otaara" hort.::"Potinara" hort.::"Schombocattleya" hort.::"Sophrocattleya" hort.::"Sophrolaelia" hort.::"Sophrolaeliocattleya" hort.Subtribe Meiracyllinae::"Meiracyllium" Rchb.f.
*Subtribe PleurothallidinaeThese species have single leaves, non-pseudobulbous ramicauls, articulated ovary, deciduous from the pedicel.
**Genera: "Acianthera", "Acostaea", "Anathallis", "Barbosella", "Barbrodria", "Brachionidium", "Chamelophyton", "Condylago", "Draconanthes", "Dracula", "Dresslerella", "Dryadella", "Echinosepala", "Frondaria", "Jostia", "Lepanthes", "Lepanthopsis", "Luerella", "Masdevallia", "Myoxanthus", "Octomeria", "Ophidion", "Pabstiella", "Phloeophila", "Platystele", "Pleurothallis", "Porroglossum", "Restrepia", "Restrepiella", "Salpistele", "Scaphosepalum", "Specklinia", "Stelis", "Teagueia", "Trichosalpinx", "Trisetella", "Zootrophion"

Tribe Epipogieae

*Genera: "Epipogium", "Stereosandra"

Tribe Gastrodieae

*Subtribe Gastrodiinae
**Genera: "Didymoplexis", "Gastrodia"
*Subtribe Nervilliinae
**Genus: "Nervilia"
*Subtribe Rhizanthellinae
**Genera: "Cryptanthemis", "Rhizanthella"

Tribe Malaxideae

Over 900 species
*Genera: "Liparis", "Malaxis"

Tribe Neottieae

About 100 species
*Subtribe Limodorinae
**Genera: Aphyllorchis, "Cephalanthera", "Epipactis", Limodorum
*Subtribe Listerinae
**Genus: "Listera"

Tribe Podochilaeae

*Subtribe Bulbophyllinae (according to Garay & al. 1994)
**Genus: "Acrochaene" Lindl., "Bulbophyllum" Thouars, "Chaseella" Summerhays, "Cirrhopetalum" Lindl., "Codonosiphon" Schl., "Drymoda" Lindl., "Epicrianthes" Blume, "Ferruminaria" Garay, Hamer & Siegerist," Hapalochilus" (Schlechter) Senghas, "Ione" Lindl., "Mastigion" Garay, Hamer & Siegerist ," Monomeria" Lindl., "Monosepalum" Schle, "Osyricera" Blume, "Pedilochilus" Schl., "Rhytionanthos" Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, "Saccoglossum" Schl., "Sunipia" Lindl., "Synarmosepalum" Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, "Tapeinoglossum" Schl., "Trias" Lindl.," Vesicisepalum" Garay, Hamer & Siegerist
*Subtribe Dendrobiinae
**Genera: "Cadetia", "Dendrobium", "Diplocaulobium", "Epigeneium", "Flickingeria", "Pseuderia"

*Subtribe Eriinae
**Alliance Eria
***Genera: "Eria", "Trichotosia"
**Alliance Ceratostylis
***Genera: "Appendicula", "Ceratostylis", "Epiblastus", "Sarcostoma"
*Subtribe Podochilinae
**Genera: "Chilopogon", "Podochilus"
*Subtribe Thelasiinae
**Genera: "Phreatia", "Rhynchophreatia"

Tribe Tropidieae

Formerly placed in the subfamily Spiranthoideae
*Genera: "Corymborkis", "Tropidia"

Tribe Xerorchideae

*Genus : "Xerorchis"

ubfamily Higher Epidendroideae

Formerly called Vandoideae, this is the second largest subfamily with over 300 genera in more than 5,000 species. They are mostly epiphytes, but include some terrestrials and myco-heterotrophs, all occurring in most tropical areas. The main stem grows in a single direction. Many of the species develop pseudobulbs (i.e. a bulge at the base of a stem), that are normally shorter and sturdier than those in the epidendroids. The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development.

Tribe Cymbidieae

About 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera. Species are either terrestrial or epiphytic, and range throughout global tropical regions. All species have, as a unique feature, a sympodial growth habit and two pollinia.
*Subtribe Acriopsidinae: less than 50 species.
**Genus: "Acriopsis"
*Subtribe Catasetinae: about 150 species; epiphytes occurring in the Western Hemisphere.
**Genera: "Catasetum", "Cycnoches", "Mormodes"
*Subtribe Cyrtopodiinae: over 400 species, usually terrestrial; Asia, Africa, and tropical America.
**Alliance Bromheadia
***Genus: "Bromheadia"
**Alliance Eulophia
***Genus: "Eulophia"
**Alliance Cyrtopodium
***Genera: "Cymbidiella", "Cyrtopodium", "Galeandra"
**Alliance Cymbidium
***Genera: "Ansellia", "Cymbidium", "Grammatophyllum"
**Alliance Dipodium
***Genus: "Dipodium"
**Alliance hybrids
***Genera: "Bifrenidium", "Cymphiella", "Cyrtellia", "Eulocymbidiella", "Galeansellia", "Graphiella"

*Subtribe Oncidiinae: Largest subtribe with nearly 1,000 species within about 56 to 78 genera, found in tropical America, the Caribbean and Florida. Most are epiphytes, but a few are terrestrials. .They usually have short and stout pseudobulbs.
**Alliance Oncidium: largest alliance; includes the majority of genera in cultivation.
***Genera: "Ada", "Aspasia", "Brassia", "Cochlioda", "Miltonia", "Miltoniopsis", "Odontoglossum", "Oncidium" (most)
**Alliance Trichocentrum
***Genus: "Trichocentrum"
**Alliance Comparettia
***Genera: "Oncidium" (equitants only), "Comparettia", "Rodriguezia"
**Alliance Trichophilia
***Genera: "Notylia", "Psychopsis", "Trichopilia"
**Alliance Lockhartia
***Genus: "Lockhartia"
**Alliance hybrids: over 107 hybrid genera.
***Genera: "Aliceara", "Bakerara", "Beallara", "Brassidium", "Burrageara", "Colmanara", "Degarmoara", "Howeara", "Maclellanara", "Miltassia", "Miltonidium", "Odontobrassia", "Odontocidium", "Odontonia", "Rodricidium", "Trichocidium", "Vuylstekeara", "Wilsonara"
*Subtribe Pachyphyllinae: less than 50 species.
**Genus: "Pachyphyllum"
*Subtribe Thecostelinae: less than 50 species.
**Genus: "Thecostele"

Tribe Polystachyeae

About 200 species which all show four pollinia. The lip often has mealy hairs called pseudopollen on the upper surface.
*Genus: "Polystachya"

Tribe Vandeae

Over 1,700 species in more than 130 genera; occurs in tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia, and Africa.
*Subtribe Aerangidinae: about 300 to 400 species; tropical Africa and Madagascar.
**Genera: "Aerangis", "Mystacidium"
*Subtribe Angraecinae: about 300 to 400 species, tropical Africa and Madagascar.
**Alliance Angraecum
***Genera: "Aeranthes", "Angraecum", "Cryptopus", "Jumellea", "Neobathiea" , "Oeonia"
**Alliance Campylocentrum
***Genera: "Campylocentrum", "Dendrophylax"
*Subtribe Sarcanthinae: more than 1,000 species in over 100 genera, including about 208 (38%) hybrid genera; occurs mostly in Asia with a few in Africa.
**Alliance Phalaenopsis
***Genera: "Aerides", "Chiloschista", "Doritis", "Phalaenopsis", "Paraphalaenopsis", "Rhynchostylis", "Sarcochilus"
**Alliance Vanda
***Genera: "Adenoncos", "Arachnis", "Ascocentrum", "Ascoglossum", "Euanthe", "Luisia", "Renanthera", "Vanda", "Vandopsis"
**Alliance Trichoglottis
***Genera: "Abdominea", "Acampe", "Amesiella", "Cleisostoma", "Gastrochilus", "Neofinetia", "Robiquetia", "Trichoglottis"
***Genera: "Aeridovanda", "Aranda", "Ascocenda", "Ascofinetia", "Asconopsis", "Christieara", "Doritaenopsis", "Opsistylis", "Perreiraara", "Renanstylis", "Renantanda", "Renanthopsis", "Rhynchovanda", "Vandaenopsis", "Vascostylis"

Tribe Maxillarieae

70 to 80 genera with about 1,000 species; most grow in tropical America as terrestrials or epiphytes, a few are myco-heterotrophs. Most show pseudobulbs, but a few have reedlike stems or thick underground stems. Blooms have four pollinia.
*Subtribe Bifrenariinae: thin and pleated leaves.
**Genera: "Bifrenaria", "Xylobium"
*Subtribe Corallorhizinae: all myco-heterotrophs
**Genera: "Aplectrum", "Corallorrhiza"
*Subtribe Dichaeinae
**Genus: "Dichaea"
*Subtribe Lycastinae: thin and pleated leaves.
**Genera: "Anguloa", "Bifrenaria", "Lycaste", "Neomoorea", "Rudolfiella", "Teuscheria", "Xylobium"
*Subtribe Maxillariinae: largest subtribe with nearly half of the tribe species. The leathery leaves are conduplicate, i.e. folded together lengthwise.
**Genera: "Chrysocycnis", "Cyrtidium", "Maxillaria", "Mormolyca", "Pityphyllum", "Scuticaria", "Sepalosaccus", "Trigonidium"
*Subtribe: Ornithocephalinae
**Genera: "Ornithocephalus", "Zygostates"
*Subtribe Stanhopeinae: about 200 species; epiphytes found in the Western Hemisphere.
**Genera: "Acineta", "Braemia", "Cirrhaea", "Coryanthes", "Embreea", "Gongora", "Horichia", "Houlletia", "Jennyella", "Kegeliella", "Lacaena", "Lueddemannia", "Paphinia", "Polycycnis", "Schlimia", "Sievekingia", "Soterosanthus", "Stanhopea", "Trevoria", "Vasqueziella"
*Subbtribe Coeliopsidinae
**Genera: "Coeliopsis", "Lycomormium", "Peristeria"
*Subtribe Telipogoninae
**Genera: "Darwiniella", "Dipterostele", "Hofmeisterella", "Stellilabium", "Telipogon", "Trichoceros"
*Subtribe Zygopetilinae: about 150 species. Most exhibited hybrids are to be found in this subtribe.
**Alliance Warrea
***Genera: "Otostylis", "Warrea"
**Alliance Zygopetalum
***Genera: "Aganisia", "Batemannia", "Bollea", "Cheiradenia", "Chondrorhyncha", "Cochleanthes", "Colax", "Pabstia", "Promenaea", "Zygopetalum"
**Alliance Bollea
***Genera: "Bollea", "Chondrorhyncha", "Cochleanthes", "Huntleya", "Kefersteinia", "Pescatoria", "Stenia"
**Alliance Vargasiella
***Genus: "Vargasiella"
**Alliance hybrids: of the 43 hybrids in this tribe, only Angulocaste is displayed frequently.
***Genera: "Aitkenara", "Bateostylis", "Bollopetalum", "Chondrobollea", "Cochella", "Cochlecaste", "Cochlenia", "Cochlepetalum", "Downsara", "Durutyara", "Hamelwellsara", "Huntleanthes", "Kanzerara", "Keferanthes", "Lancebirkara", "Otocolax", "Otonisia", "Palmerara", "Rotorara", "Zygocaste", "Zygolum", "Zygonisia", "Zygostylis"

ubfamily Orchidoideae

Tribe Diceratosteleae

**Genus: "Diceratostele"

Tribe Codonorchideae

*Genus: "Codonorchis"

Tribe Cranichideae

The former subfamily Spiranthoideae is now embedded in the clade Orchidoideae as the tribe Cranichideae (Dressler, 1993). It includes 95 genera and about 1100 species. Species of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents (except Antarctica), but mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia. All subtribes are monophyletic.
*Subtribe Cranichidinae : occurring in the Neotropics
**Genera: "Altensteinia", "Baskervilla", "Cranichis", "Exalaria", "Fuertesiella", "Myrosmodes", "Nothostele", "Ponthieva", "Pseudocentrum", "Pseudocranichis", "Pterichis", "Solenocentrum"
*Subtribe Prescottiinae : occurs in the Neotropics
**Genera : "Aa", "Gomphichis", "Porphyrostachys", "Prescottia", "Stenoptera"
*Subtribe Galeottiellinae
**Genus: "Galeottiella"
*Subtribe Goodyerinae : 37 genera, about 630 species in Africa, the Americas and Asia.
**Genera: "Aenhenrya", "Anoectochilus", "Aspidogyne", "Chamaegastrodia", "Cheirostylis", "Cystorchis", "Danhatchia", "Dassinia", "Erythrodes", "Eurycentrum", "Gonatostylis", "Goodyera", "Halleorchis", "Herpysma", "Hetaeria", "Hylophila", "Kreodanthus", "Kuhlhasseltia", "Lepidogyne", "Lageophila", "Ludisia", "Macodes", "Meliorchis" (extinct), "Microchilus", "Myrmechis", "Odontochilus", "Orchipedum", "Papuaea", "Platylepis", "Platythelys", "Rhamphorhynchus", "Rhomboda", "Stephanothelys", "Vrydagzybea", "Zeuxine"
*Subtribe Manniellinae : tropical Africa
**Genus: "Manniella"
*Subtribe Pterostylidinae
**Genus: "Pterostylis"
*Subtribe Spiranthinae : about 30 genera; largely terrestrial; widespread, but absent in sub-Saharan Africa; fascicled roots, dorsal erect anther, inconspicuous staminodia, resupinate flowers.
**Genera: "Aracamunia", "Aulosepalum", "Beloglottis", "Brachystele", "Buchtienia", "Coccineorchis", "Cotylolabium", "Cybebus", "Degranvillea", "Deiregyne", "Dichromanthus", "Discyphus", "Eltroplectris", "Eurystyles", "Funkiella", "Hapalorchis", "Helonoma", "Kionophyton", "Lankesterella", "Lyroglossa", "Mesadenella", "Mesadenus", "Microthelys", "Odontorrhynchus", "Pelexia", "Physogyne", "Pseudogoodyera", "Pteroglossa", "Sacoila", "Sarcoglottis", "Sauroglossum", "Schiedeella", "Skeptrostachys", "Spiranthes", "Stalkya", "Svenkoeltzia", "Thelyschista", "Veyretia", "Wallnoeferia"
*Subtribe Stenorrhynchidinae
**Genera : "Stenorrhynchos"
*Subtribe Cyclopogoninae
**Genera : "Cyclopogon"
*Subtribe Pachyplectroninae : endemic to New Caledonia
**Genera : "Pachyplectron"

Tribe Diseae

*Subtribe Brownleeinae
**Genus: "Brownleea"
*Subtribe Coryciinae
**Genera: "Ceratandra", "Corycium", "Disperis", "Evotella", "Pterygodium"
*Subtribe Disinae
**Genera: "Disa", "Schizodium"
*Subtribe Huttonaeinae
**Genus: "Huttonaea"
*Subtribe Satyriinae
**Genera: "Pachites", "Satyrium"

Tribe Diurideae

About 550 species in 39 genera; mainly Australasia.
*Subtribe Acianthinae
**Genera: "Acianthus", "Corybas", "Cyrtostylis", "Stigmatodactylus", "Townsonia"
*Subtribe Caladeniinae
**Genera: "Adenochilus", "Aporostylis", "Caladenia", "Cyanicula", "Elythranthera", "Ericksonella", "Eriochilus", "Glossodia", "Leptoceras", "Pheladenia", "Praecoxanthus"
*Subtribe Chloraeinae : From South America and New Caledonia (Megastylis)
**Genera : "Bipinnula", "Chloraea", "Gavilea", "Geoblasta", "Megastylis"
*Subtribe Cryptostylidinae
**Genera: "Coilochilus", "Cryptostylis"
*Subtribe Diuridinae
**Genera: "Diuris", "Orthoceras"
*Subtribe Drakaeinae
**Genera: "Arthrochilus", "Calaena", "Chiloglottis", "Drakaea", "Myrmechila", "Spiculaea"
*Subtribe Megastylidinae
**Genera: "Burnettia", "Leporella", "Lyperanthus", "Megastylis", "Pyrorchis", "Rimacola", "Waireia"
*Subtribe Prasophyllinae
**Genera: "Genoplesium", "Microtis", "Prasophyllum"
*Subtribe Pterostylidinae
*Subtribe Rhizanthellinae
**Genus: "Rhizantella"
*Subtribe Thelymitrinae
**Genera: "Calochilus", "Epiblema", "Thelymitra"

Tribe Orchideae

This is the largest tribe, containing more than 1,700 species.
*Subtribe Orchidinae
**Genera: "Aceratorchis", "Amerorchis", "Amitostigma", "Anacamptis", "Androcorys", "Barlia", "Bartholina", "Benthamia", "Bonatea", "Brachycorythis", "Centrostigma", "Chamorchis", "Chondradenia", "Comperia", "Cynorchis", "Dactylorhiza", "Diphylax", "Diplomeris", "Dracomonticola", "Galearis", "Gennaria", "Gymnadenia", "Habenaria", "Hemipilia", "Herminium", "Himantoglossum", "Holothrix", "Megalorchis", "Neobolusia", "Neotinea", "Neottianthe", "Oligophyton", "Ophrys", "Orchis", "Pecteilis", "Peristylus", "Physoceras", "Platanthera", "Platycoryne", "Ponerorchis", "Porolabium", "Pseudorchis", "Roeperocharis", "Schizochilus", "Serapias", "Smithorchis", "Stenoglottis", "Steveniella", "Symphyosepalum", "Thulinia", "Traunsteinera", "Tylostigma", "Veyretella"

ubfamily Vanilloideae

Tribe Pogoniinae

*Genera: "Cleistes", "Duckeella", "Isotria", "Pogonia", "Pogoniopsis"

Tribe Vanilleae

*Genera: "Clematepistephium", "Cyrtosia", "Dictyophyllaria", "Epistephium", "Eriaxis", "Erythrorchis", "Galeola", "Lecanorchis", "Pseudovanilla", "Vanilla"

Not assigned

These two tribes are not currently assigned to a specific subfamily:

Tribe Triphoreae: A primitive tribe consisting of three genera and twenty species. Possibly belongs to the Epidendrum subfamily.
*Genera : "Monophyllorchis", "Triphora"

Tribe Wullschlaegelieae: only one genus with two species.
*Genus: "Wullschlaegelia"


*Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F. eds. (1999). Genera Orchidacearum 1 - Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae. Oxford Univ. Press.
*Rasmussen, F.N.; Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., & Chase, M.A. eds. (2001). Genera Orchidacearum 2 - Orchidoideae (Part 1). Oxford Univ. Press.
*Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F. eds. (2003). Genera Orchidacearum 3 - Orchidoideae (Part 2), Vanilloideae. Oxford Univ. Press.
*Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F. eds. (2006). Genera Orchidacearum 4 - Epidendroideae (Part 1). Oxford Univ. Press.
*Dressler, Robert L. 1981. The Orchids: Natural History and Classification. Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-87525-7 -- It is the best popular scientific account of the orchids, their biology, evolution, and classification.
*Dressler, Robert L. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. 314 p.
*CHASE, M. W., J. V. FREUDENSTEIN, AND K. M. CAMERON. 2001. DNA data and Orchidaceae systematics: A new phylogenetic classification.
*Chase, M. W. 2005. "Classification of Orchidaceae in the age of DNA data". Curtis's Bot. Mag. 22(1): 2-7.
*Chase, M. W., Hanson, L., Albert, V. A., Whitten, W. M., and Williams, N. H. 2005. "Life history evolution and genome size in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)" Ann. Bot. 95(1): 191-199
* [ A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae, evidence from "rbcL" nucleotide sequences]
* [ History of the taxonomy of orchids]
* [ Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae ]
* [ Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes (mostly) on the Tree of Life]

External links

* [ Orchid genera till May 8th 2004]
* [ Molecular and structural approaches]
* [ Useful links]
* [ Taxonomy (in Portuguese)]
* [ Native Orchids of Provence (France) French & English]
* [ Qurrata A'yun Indonesian orchid society]

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