Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow

Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow

Cyprian (Bulgarian: Киприан, Russian: Киприан, Ukrainian: Кипріан) (c. 1336 – 16 September 1406) was Metropolitan of Moscow (since 1381), Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (since 1390). (The official title was Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus' until 1448, even though the metropolitans were in Vladimir-on-Kliazma and later Moscow since 1299.)

He lived for some time at Mount Athos. In 1376 he was ordained as a bishop in Constantinople at the behest of the Lithuanian grand duke Algirdas. Was Metropolitan of Kiev. Because this ordination was not recognized by Moscow, he became the metropolitan of “all Rus’” only in 1389. He resided thereafter in Moscow, although he visited Kiev and other Ukrainian eparchies.

Cyprian was a clergyman of Bulgarian nationality.[1] In 1373, the Patriarch of Constantinople Philotheus Kokkinos picked him for his devout lifestyle and excellent education and sent him to Lithuania and Muscovy on a mission to reconcile the princes of Lithuania and Tver with Metropolitan Alexius. In 1375, after the hostilities between Moscow and Lithuania had started all over again, the Lithuanian princes asked to appoint Cyprian their Metropolitan. Philotheus Kokkinos made Cyprian Metropolitan of Kiev, all Russia and Lithuania, so that he could unite both ecclesiastical provinces after the death of Alexius.

In 1378, Metropolitan Alexius died. As a result of the ensuing skirmishes and intrigues, Cyprian became Metropolitan of Moscow in 1381. One year later, however, he fled from Moscow due to the approaching armies of Tokhtamysh. Subsequently, he was removed from Russia and replaced with Metropolitan Pimen (1382–1384). The latter was succeeded by Metropolitan Dionysius (1384–1385). In 1390, Cyprian was returned to Moscow by Vasili II, who he had always supported, and appointed Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia.[2]

Cyprian is remembered as a wise and experienced church administrator who fought for the unity of the Russian church. In fact, he is mainly responsible for uniting the Church in Russia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He faced serious opposition during his metropolitanate; Dmitry Donskoy and his advisors were excommunicated for opposing Cyprian's efforts to take up his place in Moscow, and Novgorod the Great – especially Archbishops Aleksei and Ioann II – also opposed his efforts to adjudicate ecclesiastical cases there, which would have allowed him to gain the court fees from Novgorod during the time he sat in judgement there.

Cyprian was an erudite person and oversaw the copying and creation of a number of important works, including the Troitskaia Chronicle (or Troitskaya letopis') and, probably, the Metropolitan Justice (also known as the Pravosudiye metropolich’ye or Правосудие митрополичье). He also rewrote the Life of Metropolitan Peter, originally written around 1327. He also corrected biblical books and translated a number of ecclesiastic works from Greek into Old Church Slavic.[3]

Cyprian is buried in the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin. He was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in the 15th century. St. Kiprian Peak on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Cyprian.


  1. ^ N. F. Droblenkova and G. M. Prokhorov, “Kiprian (ok. 1330-16.IX.1406) Mitropolit Kievskii i vseia Rusi,” in D. S. Likhachev, Slovar knizhnikov i knizhnosti drevnei Rusi, vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 464-465.
  2. ^ John Meyendorff, Byzantium and the Rise of Russia (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary, 1989), 214-221.
  3. ^ Droblenkova and Prokhorov, “Kiprian (ok. 1330-16.IX.1406) Mitropolit Kievskii i vseia Rusi,” in D. S. Likhachev, Slovar knizhnikov i knizhnosti drevnei Rusi, vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 473-474.

Андреев В.Ф. Из истории Русской Церкви XIV-XV веков. Митрополит св. Киприан. Великий Новгород, 2008.

Orthodox Church titles
Preceded by
Metropolitan of Moscow
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Dionysius I
Metropolitan of Moscow
Succeeded by

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pimen, Metropolitan of Moscow — Pimen, known as Pimen the Greek (ru: Пимен Грек) was Metropolitan of Moscow (technically Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus ) from 1382 1384. He was hegumen of the Goritskii Monastery in Pereiaslavl Zalevskii when Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy sent… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexius, Metropolitan of Moscow — Saint Alexius, Metropolitan of Moscow Icon of St. Alexis with scenes from his life by Dionisius Wonderworker Born 1296 Moscow …   Wikipedia

  • Dionysius I, Metropolitan of Moscow — Icon of Saint Dionysius I, Metropolitan of Moscow. Saint Dionysius I (Russian: Дионисий); baptismal name: David(Давид) (1300? October 15, 1385) was a Russian Orthodox metropolitan in 1384 1385. As a young man David entered the Kiev Caves Lavra,… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyprian (disambiguation) — Cyprian can refer to: A synonym for Cypriot, someone or thing from Cyprus The Cyprian, an epithet for Aphrodite, because of her association with Cyprus St. Cyprian (Kyprianos), bishop of Carthage Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow St. Cyprian of… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyprian, Saint — Latin Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus born с 200, Carthage died Sept. 14, 258, Carthage; Western and Eastern feast day September 16; Anglican feast day September 26 Early Christian theologian and Church Father. He converted to Christianity с 246 and …   Universalium

  • List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow — Domestic church of the Patriarchs of Moscow …   Wikipedia

  • September 16 — Events*1400 Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers. *1701 James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the Old Pretender , becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland. *1776 American Revolutionary War …   Wikipedia

  • Patriarch Evtimiy of Bulgaria — Saint Evtimiy of Tarnovo (also Evtimii, Evtimij, Euthymius ; bg. Свети Евтимий Търновски, Sveti Evtimiy Tarnovski ) was Patriarch of Bulgaria between 1375 and 1393. Regarded as one of the most important figures of medieval Bulgaria, Evtimiy was… …   Wikipedia

  • Old Believers — Surikov, Vasily, Boyarynya Morozova …   Wikipedia

  • 1336 — Year 1336 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Events of 1336* The Kemmu restoration ends and the Muromachi period begins in Japan. * The reign of Emperor Kōmyō, second of the Northern… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”