- Essential thrombocytosis
Name = Essential thrombocytosis
ICD10 = ICD10|D|75|2|d|70, ICD10|D|47|3|d|37
ICD9 = ICD9|238.71
ICDO = 9962/3
OMIM = 187950
DiseasesDB = 4522
MedlinePlus = 000543
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 2266
MeshID = D013920
Essential thrombocytosis (ET, also known as essential thrombocythemia) is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of
plateletsby megakaryocytes in the bone marrowin the absence of an alternative cause. In some cases this disorder may be progressive, and rarely may evolve into acute myeloid leukemiaor myelofibrosis. It is one of four myeloproliferative disorders.
Essential thrombocytosis is diagnosed at a rate of about 2 to 3 per 100,000 individuals annually. [cite journal | author = Mesa R, Silverstein M, Jacobsen S, Wollan P, Tefferi A | title = Population-based incidence and survival figures in essential thrombocythemia and agnogenic myeloid metaplasia: an Olmsted County Study, 1976-1995 | journal = Am J Hematol | volume = 61 | issue = 1 | pages = 10–5 | year = 1999 | pmid = 10331505 | doi = 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8652(199905)61:1<10::AID-AJH3>3.0.CO;2-I] [cite journal | author = Kutti J, Ridell B | title = Epidemiology of the myeloproliferative disorders: essential thrombocythaemia, polycythaemia vera and idiopathic myelofibrosis | journal = Pathol Biol (Paris) | volume = 49 | issue = 2 | pages = 164–6 | year = 2001 | pmid = 11317963] The disease usually affects middle aged to elderly individuals, with an average age at diagnosis of 50-60 years, although it can affect children and young adults as well. [Hoffman: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, 4th ed., 2005 Churchill Livingstone, Chapter 71.]
The pathologic basis for this disease is unknown. However, essential thrombocytosis resembles
polycythemia verain that cells of the megakaryocytic series are more sensitive to growth factors. Platelets derived from the abnormal megakaryocytes do not function properly, which contributes to the clinical features of bleeding and thrombosis.
In 2005, a mutation in the
JAK2kinase (V617F) was found by multiple research groups cite journal | author=Kralovics R, Passamonti F, Buser AS, Teo SS, et al |title=A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders| journal=N Engl J Med |date=2005 |volume=352|issue=17 |pages=1779–90 | doi=10.1056/NEJMoa051113 |pmid=15858187] cite journal |author=Baxter EJ, Scott LM, Campbell PJ, "et al" |title=Acquired mutation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in human myeloproliferative disorders |journal=Lancet |volume=365 |issue=9464 |pages=1054–61 |year=2005 |pmid=15781101 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71142-9 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140-6736(05)71142-9] cite journal |author=Levine RL, Wadleigh M, Cools J, "et al" |title=Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis |journal=Cancer Cell |volume=7 |issue=4 |pages=387–97 |year=2005 |pmid=15837627 |doi=10.1016/j.ccr.2005.03.023 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1535-6108(05)00094-2] to be associated with essential thrombocytosis in around 30% of cases. "JAK2" is a member of the Janus kinasefamily. This mutation may be helpful in making a diagnosis or as a target for future therapy.
The major symptoms are bleeding and thrombosis. Other symptoms include
epistaxis(nosebleeds) and bleeding from gums and gastrointestinal tract. One characteristic symptom is throbbing and burning of the hands and feet due to the occlusion of small arterioles by platelets ( erythromelalgia). An enlarged spleen ( splenomegaly) may be found on examination.
The diagnosis of essential thrombocytosis requires the presence of a persistent thrombocytosis of greater than 600 x109/L in the absence of an alternative cause.
The following revised diagnostic criteria for essential thrombocytosis were proposed in 2005 cite journal |author=Campbell PJ, Green AR |title=Management of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia |journal=Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program |volume= |issue= |pages=201–8 |year=2005 |pmid=16304381 |doi=10.1182/asheducation-2005.1.201 |url=http://www.asheducationbook.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16304381] . The diagnosis requires the presence of both A criteria together with B3 to B6, or of criterion A1 together with B1 to B6.
* A1. Platelet count > 600 x 109/L for at least 2 months
* A2. Acquired V617F JAK2 mutation present
* B1. No cause for a reactive thrombocytosis
** normal inflammatory indices
* B2. No evidence of iron deficiency
** stainable iron in the bone marrow or normal red cell mean corpuscular volume
* B3. No evidence of
** hematocrit < midpoint of normal range or normal red cell mass in presence of normal iron stores
* B4. No evidence of chronic myeloid leukemiaBut the Philadelphia chromosome may be present in up to 10% of cases. Patients with the Philadelphia chromosome have a potential for the development of acute leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia.
* B5. No evidence of
** no collagen fibrosis and ≤ grade 2 reticulin fibrosis (using 0–4 scale)
* B6. No evidence of a myelodysplastic syndrome
** no significant dysplasia
** no cytogenetic abnormalities suggestive of myelodysplasia
Not all patients will require treatment at presentation. In those who are at increased risk of thrombosis or bleeding (older age, prior history of bleeding or thrombosis, or very high platelet count), reduction of the platelet count to the normal range can be achieved using
hydroxyurea(also known as hydroxycarbamide), interferon-αor anagrelide. Low-dose aspirin is widely used to reduce the risk of thrombosis, but there may be an increased risk of bleeding if aspirin is initiated whilst the platelet count is very high.
The PT1 study cite journal |author=Harrison CN, Campbell PJ, Buck G, "et al" |title=Hydroxyurea compared with anagrelide in high-risk essential thrombocythemia |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=353 |issue=1 |pages=33–45 |year=2005 |pmid=16000354 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa043800 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=16000354&promo=ONFLNS19] compared hydroxyurea in combination with aspirin to anagrelide in combination with Aspirin as initial therapy for essential thrombocytosis. Hydroxyurea was superior, with lower risk of arterial thrombosis, lower risk of severe bleeding and lower risk of transformation to myelofibrosis (although the rate of venous thrombosis was higher with hydroxycarbamide than with anagrelide).
In rare cases where patients have life-threatening complications, the platelet count can be reduced rapidly using platelet
apheresis(a procedure that removes platelets from the blood directly).
Essential thrombocytosis is sometimes described as a slowly progressive disorder with long asymptomatic periods punctuated by thrombotic or hemorrhagic events.
However, well-documented medical regimes can reduce and control the number of platelets, which reduces the risk of these thrombotic or haemorrhagic events. The lifespan of a well controlled ET person is well within the expected range for a person of similar age but without ET.
pecial care related to pregnancy
anagrelideare counter-indicated during pregnancyand nursing. There is current debate as to the safety of interferonduring pregnancy and nursing. Essential thrombocytosis can be linked with increased risk of spontaeous abortion or miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Throughout pregnancy, close monitoring of the mother for thrombosis and placenta is recommended to ensure blood clots are caught. Post partum, often daily injections of low dose low molecular weight heparin(e.g. enoxaparin) are prescribed for several weeks as this is a period where the mother is at higher risk of developing a blood clot.
* [http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Aboutcancer/Pre-cancerousconditions/Essentialthrombocythaemia Cancerbackup Essential Thrombocytosis page]
* [http://www.mpdinfo.org/ CMPD Education Foundation]
* [http://www.mpdfoundation.org/about_mpd.htm MPD Foundation and Research Alliance - Register for a free newsletter]
* [http://www.agrylin.com/ Overview of Agrylin, the tradename for anagrelide hydrochloride]
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