Space Preservation Act

Space Preservation Act

The Space Preservation Act was a series of four bills introduced to the United States House of Representatives designed to "preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind."Space Preservation Act of 2005. Introduction.] To achieve this end, the bills defined certain activities as being proscribed in space. Proscribed activities include placing weapons systems in space and creating land-based systems designed to destroy (or damage) objects in orbit.

Each of the four incarnations of this act have failed to make it out of committee. The latest bill (2005) progressed the farthest, perhaps because of the large number of co-sponsors (39). It failed to be voted out of either of the two subcommittees to which it was referred.

Space Preservation Act of 2001

Ohio Representative Dennis Kucinich introduced the first Space Preservation Act on October 2, 2001, with no co-sponsors. The architects of the bill were Alfred Webre and Carol Rosin of the Institute for Cooperation in Space and The Disclosure Project. The bill was referred to the House Science, the House Armed Services, and the House International Relations committees. The bill died in committee (April 9, 2002) because of an unfavorable executive comment received from the Department of Defense. [ [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HR02977:@@@X H.R.2977, The Library of Congress] ]

Text of 2001 Bill

(H. R. 2977)107th CONGRESS1st Session [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:h2977ih.txt.pdf H.R. 2977 IH(107a)] ]

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

October 2, 2001

Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned.

A BILL

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.

:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

:This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001'.

SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE.

:Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'.

SEC. 3. PERMANENT BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE.

:The President shall--

::(1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and

::(2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components.

SEC. 4. WORLD AGREEMENT BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS.

:The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons.

SEC. 5. REPORT.

:The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on--

::(1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and

::(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4.

SEC. 6. NON SPACE-BASED WEAPONS ACTIVITIES.

:Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for--

::(1) space exploration;

::(2) space research and development;

::(3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or

::(4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.

SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.

:In this Act:

::(1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.

::(2)(A) The terms `weapon' and `weapons system' mean a device capable of any of the following:

::::(i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by--

:::::(I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object;

:::::(II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object;

:::::(III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or

:::::(IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means.

::::(ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)--

:::::(I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B);

:::::(II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or

:::::(III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.

:::(B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as--

::::(i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;

::::(ii) chemtrails;

::::(iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems;

::::(iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;

::::(v) laser weapons systems;

::::(vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and

::::(vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.

:::(C) The term `exotic weapons systems' includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space.

Space Preservation Act of 2002

Ohio Representative Kucinich introduced the second Space Preservation Act on January 23, 2002, this time with nine (9) co-sponsors. The bill was referred to the House Science, the House Armed Services, and the House International Relations committees. The bill died in committee (January 23, 2002) awaiting an executive comment from the Department of Defense.

Text of 2002 Bill

(H. R. 3616)107th CONGRESS2d Session [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:h3616ih.txt.pdf H.R. 3616 IH(107b)] ]

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

January 23, 2002

Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

A BILL

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

:This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2002'.

SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE.

:Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'.

SEC. 3. BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall--

::(1) implement a ban on space-based weapons of the United States and the use of weapons of the United States to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and

::(2) immediately order the termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States.

SEC. 4. INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing an international treaty banning space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit.

SEC. 5. REPORT.

:The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 6 months thereafter, a report on--

::(1) the implementation of the ban on space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit required by section 3; and

::(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the treaty described in section 4.

SEC. 6. SPACE-BASED NONWEAPONS ACTIVITIES.

:Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for--

::(1) space exploration;

::(2) space research and development;

::(3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or

::(4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.

SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.

:In this Act:

::(1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.

::(2) The terms `space-based weapon' and `space-based system' mean a device capable of damaging or destroying an object or person (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by--

:::(A) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person;

:::(B) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person;

:::(C) directing a source of energy against that object or person; or

:::(D) any other undeveloped means.

Space Preservation Act of 2003

Ohio Representative Kucinich introduced the third Space Preservation Act on December 8, 2003, this time with four (4) co-sponsors. The bill was referred to the House Science, the House Armed Services, and the House International Relations committees. The bill again died in committee (January 5, 2004) awaiting an executive comment from the Department of Defense.

Text of 2003 Bill

(H. R. 3657)108th CONGRESS1st Session [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h3657ih.txt.pdf H.R. 3657 IH(108a)] ]

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

December 8, 2003

Mr. KUCINICH (for himself, Mr. HOEFFEL, Mr. CONYERS, and Mr. HINCHEY) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

A BILL

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

:This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2003'.

SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE .

:Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'.

SEC. 3. BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall--

::(1) implement a ban on space -based weapons of the United States and the use of weapons of the United States to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and

::(2) immediately order the termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space -based weapons of the United States.

SEC. 4. INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING SPACE -BASED WEAPONS AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing an international treaty banning space -based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit.

SEC. 5. REPORT.

:The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act , and every 6 months thereafter, a report on--

::(1) the implementation of the ban on space -based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit required by section 3; and

::(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the treaty described in section 4.

SEC. 6. SPACE -BASED NONWEAPONS ACTIVITIES.

:Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for--

::(1) space exploration;

::(2) space research and development;

::(3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space -based weapons or systems; or

::(4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space -based weapons or systems.

SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.

:In this Act :

::(1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 110 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space .

::(2) The terms `space -based weapon' and `space -based system' mean a device capable of damaging or destroying an object or person (whether in outer space , in the atmosphere, or on earth) by--

:::(A) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person;

:::(B) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person; or

:::(C) any other undeveloped means.

Space Preservation Act of 2005

Ohio Representative Kucinich introduced the fourth Space Preservation Act on May 18, 2005, this time with thirty-five (35) co-sponsors. The bill was again referred to the House Science, the House Armed Services, and the House International Relations committees. On June 21, 2006, the House Armed Services Committee referred the bill to the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces. The House Science Committee referred the bill to the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics. The bill died in committee.

Text of 2005 Bill

(H.R. 2420)109th CONGRESS1st Session [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:h2420ih.txt.pdf H.R. 2420 IH(109a)] ]

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

May 18, 2005

Mr. KUCINICH (for himself, Mr. ABERCROMBIE, Mr. GEORGE MILLER of California, Mr. TIERNEY, Mr. HOLT, Mr. FATTAH, Ms. WOOLSEY, Mr. MICHAUD, Mr. RAHALL, Mr. SERRANO, Ms. LEE, Ms. MOORE of Wisconsin, Mr. CONYERS, Mr. HINCHEY, Ms. MCKINNEY, Mr. DAVIS of Illinois, Mr. STARK, Mr. OWENS, Mr. HONDA, Ms. WATERS, Mr. MCGOVERN, Mr. JACKSON of Illinois, Ms. WATSON, Mr. FILNER, Ms. BALDWIN, Mr. GRIJALVA, Mr. MEEKS of New York, and Mr. MCDERMOTT) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned

A BILL

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

:This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2005'.

SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE.

:Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'.

SEC. 3. BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall--

::(1) implement a ban on space-based weapons of the United States and the use of weapons of the United States to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and

::(2) immediately order the termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States.

SEC. 4. INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT.

:The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing an international treaty banning space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit.

SEC. 5. REPORT.

:The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 6 months thereafter, a report on--

::(1) the implementation of the ban on space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit required by section 3; and

::(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the treaty described in section 4.

SEC. 6. SPACE-BASED NONWEAPONS ACTIVITIES.

:Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for--

::(1) space exploration;

::(2) space research and development;

::(3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or

::(4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.

SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.

:In this Act:

::(1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 110 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.

::(2) The terms `space-based weapon' and `space-based system' mean a device capable of damaging or destroying an object or person (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on Earth) by--

:::(A) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person;

:::(B) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person; or

:::(C) any other undeveloped means.

References

External links

* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:h2977ih.txt.pdf Text of Space Preservation Act of 2001 (H.R. 107-2977 IH)]
* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:h3616ih.txt.pdf Text of Space Preservation Act of 2002 (H.R. 107-3616 IH)]
* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h3657ih.txt.pdf Text of Space Preservation Act of 2003 (H.R. 108-3657 IH)]
* [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:h2420ih.txt.pdf Text of Space Preservation Act of 2005 (H.R. 109-2420 IH)]
* [http://www.loc.gov/index.html The Library of Congress]
* [http://kucinich.house.gov/ Representative Dennis Kucinich's (OH-10) web site]


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